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1936: The Nazis
 pg. 102 
Baldur von Schirach rose to prominence as the leader of the Hitler Youth. His organizational skills and fanatic devotion to the Führer propelled him into Hitler's inner circle. Schirach became Reich Youth Leader in 1928, National Youth Leader in 1931, and Youth Leader of the German Reich in 1933. He led the Hitler Youth, the National Socialists, Schoolboys League, the League of German Girls, and the Jungvolk until he was dismissed in 1940.
Photo: William Gallagher/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
German troops march through a Spanish city in support of Francisco Franco's military campaigns against Republican forces. German involvement in the Spanish Civil War served as a training ground for Hitler's troops and a test arena for new military equipment and tactics. The Luftwaffe, the new German air force, experimented with terror bombing of civilian populations.
Photo: National Archives/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The Hitler Youth

Adolf Hitler preached in Mein Kampf that the education and training of each young German "must be so ordered as to give him the conviction that he is absolutely superior to others." The Nazis energetically recruited the younger generation of Germans, who were both impressionable and enthusiastic.

The Hitlerjugend (HJ; Hitler Youth) was established in 1926, and by 1934, under the leadership of Baldur von Schirach, it reached a membership of 3.5 million. By 1939 membership in the Hitler Youth--and its companion organization, the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM; League of German Girls)--became compulsory, and its numbers rose to almost nine million Germans between the ages of 10 and 18. Youths were attracted to the camaraderie, the semimilitary hiking and camping, and the HJ sports competitions.

Some young Germans resisted assimilation. Working-class youths formed anti-Nazi gangs, called the "Edelweiss Pirates." They hiked and camped, too, but they often attacked Hitler Youth patrols. Others, from upper-middle-class backgrounds, such as the so-called "Swing Youth," engaged in counterculture activities, such as dancing to American jazz, which was considered "Negro music" by the regime.

 March 1936: Anti-Jewish pogroms occur in Poland. Polish Cardinal Hlond speaks out against Jewish "usury, fraud, and white slavery."
1936: The Nazis
 pg. 102 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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