Home Contact Us
Index Purchase Info
About Site About Us
Appendices Credits
Further Reading Links
Special Features
By Keyword:

Page Number:
Click on an image to see a larger, more detailed picture.
1937: Quiet Before the Storm
 pg. 117 
Prisoners called Ilse Koch, wife of concentration camp commander Karl Otto Koch, the "Bitch of Buchenwald." Notorious for her corruption and cruelty to the prisoners, as well as her promiscuity with the camp's guards, she also possessed a collection of tattooed human skin. Arrested in 1943 for her unscrupulous financial practices, she spent the last two years of the war in a Weimar, Germany, prison. After the war, she received four years' imprisonment for war crimes, later extended to a life sentence by the German government. Eventually going insane, she committed suicide in Aichach Prison in 1967.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
"Kneeling Woman," a sculpture done in artificial stone by Wilhelm Lehmbruck, was one of the many art pieces labeled as degenerate by the Nazis and displayed in an exhibition called Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art). The exhibit opened in Munich on July 19, 1937. It contained more than 650 important paintings, sculptures, and books that up until a few weeks before the exhibit had all been in one of Germany's 32 public galleries. The works were assembled to clarify the type of art that was unacceptable to the Reich and, thus, "un-German."
Photo: AP/Wide World Photos
Nuremberg became the center of the Nazi universe for one week each September. The populace decked out the entire city for the benefit of the Führer and other Party officials. Parades, designed to exhibit the solidarity of the German people, were a vital component of the festivities. Here, spectators cheer SA men marching through the medieval part of the city.
Photo: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 March 15, 1937: An anti-Nazi rally attracts large crowds in New York City. Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, whose mother was Jewish, condemns Nazism.
 Spring 1937: Without justification, Jewish merchants in Germany lose their businesses.
 April 24, 1937: Pastor Martin Niemöller, one of the foremost leaders of the German opposition forces to Hitler, preaches that it is unfortunate that God permitted Jesus to be born a Jew; See July 1, 1937.
 May 28, 1937: Neville Chamberlain becomes prime minister of Great Britain.
 July 1937: The Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibition of "unacceptable" artwork by Jews and others opens in Munich. A concurrent event of "approved" art held nearby attracts far fewer people than the Entartete Kunst exhibit.
 July 1, 1937: Pastor Martin Niemöller's antisemitism does not prevent the Nazis from arresting him because of his opposition to Hitler.
1937: Quiet Before the Storm
 pg. 117 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.