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1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 128 
The Führer meets in the Reichchancellory with pro-Nazi Slovakian Premier Jozef Tiso. Following the Munich agreement and the occupation of the Sudetenland, the Nazis continued to extend their grasp over Slovakia. In Tiso, a Catholic priest and Slovak nationalist, the Nazis found a willing partner. While Slovakia retained some political autonomy, Germany set the racial policies. In 1942 an unknown number of Gypsies and perhaps 70,000 Jews were sent to death camps. Tiso fled to Austria in 1945, where he was captured by the American Army. Extradited to Czechoslovakia, he was tried and executed for war crimes.
Photo: Wide World Photos
Warsaw, Poland, police intervene to quell an antisemitic riot. While some Jews huddle next to buildings to escape harm, others have already fallen under the force of fists and bats. After Marshal Jósef Pilsudski's death in 1935, the new Polish government used antisemitism as a tool to rally the nation and to win German goodwill. While the government did not advocate violence, right-wing parties such as the Endecja did, and during April 1938 anti-Jewish riots swept across Poland.
Photo: Wide World Photos/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Well dressed and appearing optimistic, the Simon family from Hamburg, Germany, arrives in New York before continuing its journey to San Francisco, California. While some Americans made Jewish emigres feel welcome, others, such as broadcaster Father Charles Coughlin, were openly hostile. In late 1938 supporters of Coughlin took to the streets of New York proclaiming, "Send Jews back where they came from in leaky boats."
Photo: Bundesarchiv/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 April 29, 1938: Jews are killed and injured during an antisemitic pogrom at Vilna, Poland.
 May 1938: Following the Anschluss, Austrians force Jewish men and women to scrub the streets with small brushes and with the women's fur coats.
 May 3, 1938: A concentration camp is established at Flossenbürg, Germany.
 May 4, 1938: Carl von Ossietzky, an anti-Nazi German journalist and winner of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize, dies at age 50 after five years' captivity in concentration camps.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 128 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.