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1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 130 
While Jews were prohibited from working as journalists for "German" newspapers during the Nazi years, a number of Jewish periodicals were allowed until 1938. Although closely scrutinized by censors, the papers provided an opportunity for Jews to protest their increasingly perilous existence. Jewish journalists challenged the racial basis of Nazi citizenship and the ill treatment of Jews at the hands of their Nazi oppressors. After 1938 the only journal published for Jews was the Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt.
Photo: Bildarchiv Abraham Pisarek/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The Liberation was the newspaper of the Silver Shirts, an antisemitic organization in the United States that patterned itself after the Nazi Party. This headline insinuates that Jews were ringleaders in an international drug trade, and it questions whether Americans should be duped into going to war to save such criminals.
Photo: Potter Collection/Archive Photos
Like Hitler, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini appealed to the young for support. Here, a large crowd salutes Il Duce at this Fascist youth gathering in Rome in June 1938. Mussolini's early victories, including securing much-needed Ethiopian oil, helped his popularity and spurred his desire to gain more territory. To solidify his standing with Hitler and to win approval for his expansionist plans, Mussolini enacted antisemitic legislation in 1938, a move few Italians supported.
Photo: Archive Photos
 June 22, 1938: German heavyweight boxer Max Schmeling, a symbol of "Aryan supremacy," is knocked out in the first round by world champion Joe Louis. Schmeling had defeated Louis in 1936.
 June 25, 1938: German-Jewish doctors are allowed to treat only Jewish patients.
 July 6-14, 1938: An international conference at Evian-les-Bains, France, is called by United States President Franklin Roosevelt to deal with the Jewish refugee problem. Roosevelt's aims, some say, are to deflect American Jewish appeals to help the German Jews. Aside from Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic, which want enormous sums of money to allow a small number of Jews to immigrate, the 32 nations attending the conference decide that they will not permit large numbers of Jews to enter their countries.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 130 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.