Home Contact Us
Index Purchase Info
About Site About Us
Appendices Credits
Further Reading Links
Special Features
By Keyword:

Page Number:
Click on an image to see a larger, more detailed picture.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 133 
Female workers remove the name from a Jewish-owned store located in Hof, Germany. The Aryanization of Jewish property was in full swing by summer 1938. Businesses owned by Jews were systematically seized, and large corporations and branch businesses that were backed by Jewish capital were also targeted. While the "voluntary" transfer of Jewish business to non-Jews continued at a moderate pace, a July 6 decree called for the termination of all Jewish business by the end of the year.
Photo: Stadtarchiv Hof/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The identification cards of Betty and Nathan Dreifuss issued in 1938 are stamped with the letter "J" for Jude (Jew). A decree passed on July 23 required all Jews to apply for identification cards and carry them at all times. A law issued the following month declared that all male Jews must assume the name of Israel and all female Jews the name of Sara. Not only did these laws further alienate Jews from German civil society, but they also placed the Jews under the complete control of the police.
Photo: Hanna Meyer-Moses/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
At every turn, the Nazis sought to humiliate and ostracize Jews. This sign with a prominent Star of David informs all who pass by that Jews reside in the building. Faced with this warning and fearing guilt by association, many Germans turned away from their Jewish neighbors, friends, and colleagues.
Photo: Deutsches Historisches Museum/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 August 1938: The Reichszentralstelle für Jüdische Auswanderung (Reich Central Bureau for Jewish Emigration) is established in Vienna, Austria, to facilitate Jewish emigration from the Reich; See July 26, 1939.
 August 5, 1938: Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels introduces a new radio for the German people, the German Mini-Receiver also known as the Goebbels Schnauze (Goebbels's Snout).
 August 8, 1938: The first Austrian concentration camp is established at Mauthausen.
 August 10, 1938: The Great Synagogue in Nuremberg, Germany, is destroyed.
 August 17, 1938: Male and female Jews in Germany must assume the names Israel and Sarah, respectively, by January 1, 1939.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 133 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.