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1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 135 
Desecrated and partially destroyed, this Torah scroll was once the treasured possession of a Jewish family in Pultusk, Poland. The Pole who offered it for sale after the war claimed that it had been used as the backdrop for executions of Jews in a courtyard in Pultusk. Jews Jerome Lipowicz and Abraham Zielinski purchased the scroll and eventually brought it to the United States. Now in five fragments, it is a stark reminder of the sacrilege inflicted upon the Jewish religious community.
Photo: Jerome D. Lipowicz/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Jews refused to abandon the things that made life tolerable. One of those things was orchestral music, which was administered by theKulturbund Deutscher Juden (Cultural Society of German Jews). The organization had been formed early in1933 to provide Jews with access to theater, music, sports, and other activities. It existed under increasingly strong Nazi disapproval until 1941, when it was dissolved.
Photo: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz
The Nazis viewed Freemasons and Jews as comprising a vast international conspiracy whose aim was to rule the world. Freemasons came under attack as soon as Hitler gained power, and lodges soon closed. In an effort to ridicule Masonic beliefs, the Nazis took over a lodge in Erlangen, Germany, and turned it into a museum (pictured), replete with demonstrations of rituals and initiation rites.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst
 September 1938: A concentration camp is established at Neuengamme, Germany.
 September 1938: The Berlin Putsch, with the aim of overthrowing Hitler and tossing him into an insane asylum, is planned by generals and influential civilians, but it never comes off because of poor organization and wavering leadership.
 September 6, 1938: Pope Pius XII informally tells Belgian pilgrims that antisemitism is a movement in which Christians should not involve themselves. However, Pius says, each Christian has the right "to defend himself, to take means to protect himself against all that threatens his legitimate interest."
 September 15, 1938: British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler at Berchtesgaden, Germany, to discuss the Sudeten crisis. Hitler has demanded that the Sudetenland, which was part of Austria up through the end of World War I, be ceded by Czechoslovakia to Germany.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 135 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.