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1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 140 
Members of the newly formed Hlinka Guard of Slovakia march in formation. The incorporation of the Sudetenland into Germany propelled the Hlinka People's Party, a right-wing nationalist group, into action. Hoping to create an independent Slovakian state, Hlinka leaders quickly aligned themselves with the Nazis. The nearly 90,000 Jews of Slovakia braced themselves for troubled times.
Photo: Czechoslovak News Agency
Jewish deportees line up for soup at a mobile cooking facility in the Zbaszyn, Poland, refugee camp. Nearly 6000 Jews arrived in Zbaszyn during the first two days of the expulsion. Initially, the refugees were provided with warm water and food by local residents, but since the crisis lasted several months, the Joint Distribution Committee sponsored an organized relief effort. After high-level governmental talks, Polish and German officials finally agreed to allow Jewish deportees back into Poland after they had returned to Germany to liquidate their assets.
Photo: Yad Vashem/ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 November 7, 1938: A distraught young Jew named Herschel Grynszpan, whose family has just been deported to Zbaszyn, enters the German Embassy in Paris and mortally wounds Third Secretary of Legation Ernst vom Rath. The Nazis will exploit this event by instigating a long-planned terror campaign against all Jews in Germany and Austria.
 November 9, 1938: Hitler authorizes Hermann Göring to deal with all Jewish political issues.
 November 9-10, 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) occurs across Germany and Austria. Ninety-one Jews are killed; others are beaten. Thirty thousand male Jews are sent to concentration camps, though most will be released in a few weeks. 267 synagogues are desecrated and destroyed (almost all of the synagogues of Germany and Austria). SS Security Service chief Reinhard Heydrich instructs security agencies to burn the synagogues unless German lives or property are endangered. Jewish businesses are looted and destroyed.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 140 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.