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1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 143 
The interior of the Eberswalde synagogue located in a Berlin suburb stands in ruins following the "Night of Broken Glass." In destroying Jewish places of worship, the Nazis unleashed their hatred with bitter violence. Not only were synagogues set on fire, but sacred religious objects were plundered, Jewish holy books were desecrated, and German Jews were attacked and occasionally murdered.
Photo: Ruth Gross/Bildarchiv Abraham Pisarek, Berlin
Local residents in the German-annexed Sudetenland town of Opava watch the synagogue go up in flames. Of the more than 200 synagogues destroyed during the orgy of violence unleashed during Kristallnacht, many were located in Austria and the Sudetenland. As the Nazis' empire expanded, their virulent antisemitism was disseminated throughout the realm.
Photo: Beth Hatefutsoth / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Curious women shoppers gather outside this ladies' apparel shop to survey the damage of Kristallnacht. The store next door, presumably owned by "Aryans," remains untouched, its display cases fully stocked and its windows intact. While many Germans were privately appalled at the violence unleashed that night, few publicly spoke out against what had occurred.
Photo: AP/Wide World Photos
 November 12, 1938: The Nazis decide on a decree to remove all Jews from the German economy, society, and culture. Reinhard Heydrich suggests that every Jew be forced to wear a badge. Nazi Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels suggests that Jews be kept from using public parks. Hermann Göring mentions that Hitler told him on the phone on November 9 that if war breaks out, Germany "will first of all make sure of settling accounts with the Jews. [Hitler] is going to ask the other nations: 'Why do you keep talking about the Jews? Take them!'" In the Nazi Party's principal newspaper, Goebbels writes: "We want only one thing, that the world loves the Jews enough to rid us of them all."
 November 12, 1938: Speaking at a meeting with the South African minister of economics and defense, Hitler remarks that Europe's Jews will be killed in the event of war.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 143 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.