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1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 147 
Arriving in Harwich, England, Helga Kreiner, a member of the first Kindertransport (children's transport) from Germany, clutches her doll while waiting to be taken to her new home. In response to burgeoning violence against Jews, some 10,000 refugee children from Central Europe were permitted entrance into England from December 1938 to September 1939. Some lived in foster homes or hostels; others were housed on training farms run by the Youth Aliya organization in Britain. The vast majority would never see their parents again.
Photo: Bibliothèque Historique de la Vull de Paris/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
As Hitler's leading economics advisor in the early days of the Third Reich, Hjalmar Schacht played a major role in lifting the nation from the Depression and furthering rearmament. In December 1938 Schacht proposed that German Jews could emigrate if they offered cash assets that would be transferred to the Reich at their departure. Schacht resigned from his post as plenipotentiary for the war economy in 1937. Two years later he was dismissed as head of the Reichsbank. Implicated in the 1944 plot against Hitler, Schacht was confined to a concentration camp. He was tried at Nuremberg in 1946 and acquitted of all charges.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Clutching an American flag, three-year-old Trudel Levy holds the hand of 74-year-old Mrs. Emilia Herz as the pair descends the gangplank in New York. Sailing aboard the SS President Roosevelt, these refugees arrived on the last day of a year of hatred and open violence toward Jews in Germany. Many America-bound refugees, unable to speak English and feeling adrift in a foreign land, sought support from each other and established a strong community in Washington Heights, in upper Manhattan in New York.
Photo: UPI/Corbis-Bettmann
 December 3, 1938: The German government decrees that all Jewish industries, shops, and businesses must be forcibly "Aryanized."
 December 6, 1938: Germany and France sign a nonaggression pact.
 December 18, 1938: Thousands of Father Charles Coughlin's followers take to the streets of New York City, chanting, "Send Jews back where they came from in leaky boats!" and "Wait until Hitler comes over here!" Many Christian policemen are sympathetic to the Coughlinites. The protests will last until April 1939. They are opposed by other Catholic organizations and by leftists and liberals.
 December 24, 1938: Several members of the American Catholic hierarchy and leading Protestants sign a Christmas resolution expressing "horror and shame" in response to the Kristallnacht pogrom.
1938: The End of Illusions
 pg. 147 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.