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1939: The War Against The Jews
 pg. 160 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, president of the United States from 1933 to 1945, was acutely aware of the growing crisis in Europe. Confronted on one side by American Jews who wanted to throw open the doors of the United States to Jewish refugees, and on the other side by antisemitic and xenophobic groups that desired to keep out unwanted foreigners, Roosevelt attempted to remain above the fray. Ever the astute politician, Roosevelt welcomed lobbyists from both sides into the Oval Office, listened intently to their appeals, and perpetuated the status quo. Faced with an array of domestic problems, the crisis in Europe did not yet command his complete attention.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Female inmates at the Ravensbrück concentration camp in Germany are initiated into the Nazi terror system. The women's camp at Ravensbrück, 50 miles north of Berlin, officially opened on May 15, 1939. Like their male counterparts, female prisoners built the facilities that housed them and were required to work without regard to the weather. The spring rains of northern Germany made excavating activities extremely laborious.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Members of the Jewish community in Palestine took to the streets to protest a British decision to restrict Jewish immigration into Palestine. The MacDonald White Paper of May 17, 1939, limited Jewish immigration to 10,000 people a year for a period of five years. British government policy kept the actual numbers of Jewish immigrants far below the quotas set for Palestine.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 March 25, 1939: As 500,000 people watch, 20,000 protestors march in a "Stop Hitler" parade held in New York City.
 March 31, 1939: British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces that the U.K. and France will guarantee Poland's sovereignty.
 April 1, 1939: The Spanish Civil War ends, with Francisco Franco's Fascists the victors.
 April 3, 1939: The German government issues a secret directive for the seizure of Danzig, Poland, a "free city" that will figure in German preparation for a larger war.
1939: The War Against The Jews
 pg. 160 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.