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1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 203 
Jewish refugees aboard the Portuguese steamer Quanza were denied entry to the United States at New York and to Mexico at Vera Cruz. The frantic and futile search for safe havens compelled one passenger, a German Jew, to dive overboard during a refueling stop at Norfolk, Virginia. His escape plans were foiled by an American Army guard who returned him to the ship.
Photo: Wide World Photo / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
German hygienist Sophie Erhardt checks the eye color of a Gypsy woman during a racial examination. Nazi race science classified humans according to the color of one's eyes and skin, and by body measurements. The Gypsies, who originated in India and traveled to southeastern and east-central Europe through Iran, were readily identifiable by their dark skin and eye color. The Nazis viewed the Gypsies as a threat to "pure" Nordic society and subjected them to relocation and extermination policies.
Photo: Bundesarchiv / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Jews in North Africa

Vichy's anti-Jewish policies influenced the lives of 300,000 Jews in French colonial North Africa. European immigrants there harbored strong antisemitic sentiments, and the fanatically racist Algerian nationalist movement vigorously terrorized Jews.

The mayor of Algiers, Max Régis, who was also president of the Anti-Jewish League, vowed early in his career to "water Algeria's liberty tree with Jewish blood." Algerian officials stripped Jews of French citizenship, ordered Yellow Star armbands, and applied quotas to education--even primary schools.

In Morocco, where Jewish subjects were granted equal rights, Vichy's "Jewish Statute" was not officially in effect. Still, the French colonial administration vigorously imposed anti-Jewish laws, purging the civil service and barring Jewish children from public swimming pools and scouting organizations. In Tunisia, Jews' independent status ended with the application of the "Statute." Jews lost jobs, and quotas restricted education. Libya's Jews suffered harassment by Italian colonial officials who marked passports, seized property, limited cultural opportunities, and interned Jews in labor camps, where many died.

No roundups of North African Jews occurred, but over 13,000 foreign Jews deported from Vichy were interned in the desert, where they constituted slave-labor battalions for the Trans-Saharan Railway project. Many died in these remote and desolate camps.

 September 11, 1940: In Holland, a collaborationist military unit, Nederlandsche SS (Dutch SS), is established.
 September 15, 1940: Germany's Luftwaffe suffers major losses over London, at last giving Britain's Royal Air Force (RAF) the upper hand in the Battle of Britain.
 September 23, 1940: SS chief Heinrich Himmler authorizes a special SS Reichsbank account to hold gold (including gold extracted from teeth), silver, jewelry, and foreign currency stolen from interned Jews. The account is held by the fictitious "Max Heiliger."
 September 24, 1940: Director Veit Harlan's antisemitic film Jud Süss premieres in Berlin.
 September 27, 1940: Japan signs a treaty with Germany and Italy, thus forming the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis. Slovakia, Romania, and Hungary will soon join.
1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 203 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.