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1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 206 

Warsaw's half-million Jews feared the Umschlagplatz,an assembly point for deportation.
A group of hungry Jewish children passes the time of day in a crowded room in the Warsaw Ghetto. Children were particularly vulnerable to the harsh treatment of the Nazis. Without proper food, shelter, and clothing, childhood mortality rates were very high. In addition, with schools closed, extracurricular activities nonexistent, and traditional family structures shattered, children of the ghettos were deprived of education and their innocence.
Photo: Lydia Chagoll / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
A German soldier checks the papers of a Jewish woman as she enters the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto. The walls of the ghetto were sealed on November 16, 1940, and from that time until the final liquidation, traffic to and from the ghetto was tightly regulated. At first the ghetto had 22 gates and openings in the wall. By April 1941 only 13 of them remained, all of which were guarded by a cadre of police forces: German, Polish, and Jewish. No one dared to walk through the gates without the proper papers.
Photo: Bundesarchiv / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 October 22, 1940: Jewish business owners in the Netherlands must register their businesses with the occupying Nazis.
 October 25, 1940: A German directive issued from Kraków, Poland, prohibits issuance of exit visas to Polish Jews.
 October 28, 1940: Italy invades Greece. More than 12,000 Greek Jews help to halt the Italian offensive.
 October 28, 1940: German occupiers in Belgium pass antisemitic legislation.
 November 11, 1940: Fifty-five non-Jewish Polish intellectuals are murdered at Dachau, Germany.
 November 11, 1940: German authorities in Poland officially declare the existence of the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto.
1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 206 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.