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1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 209 
Among the most active Resistance groups in the Warsaw Ghetto was Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa'ir, a Zionist-Socialist movement that saw National Socialism as a natural outgrowth of capitalism. Firm believers in "self-help"--that is, Jews looking after Jews--Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa'ir had its own soup kitchen located in its secret headquarters at 23 Nalewki Street. Pictured here are the founders of the organization. From left to right: Oskar Handler, Zivia Lubetkin, Yudke Helman, and Yitzhak Zuckerman.
Photo: Ghetto Fighter's House/ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
All public facilities in Warsaw, Poland, and other cities with a Jewish ghetto, were strictly segregated. The streetcar above is labeled "Only for Jews." Non-Jews were forbidden to travel in streetcars bearing this distinction, and Jews could use only such cars. Jews careless enough to ride on the non-Jewish cars were executed. The Germans hoped that, by segregating the Polish population, non-Jews would not learn about the living conditions in the ghetto.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst
Even the dead were segregated, as this Jewish "corpse wagon" demonstrates.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst
 December 5, 1940: British government official Sir John Schuckburgh writes that "the Jews have no sense of humor and no sense of proportion."
 December 9, 1940: A German soldier leaps from a car in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto and strikes a Jewish boy in the head with an iron bar, killing him.
 December 12, 1940: The Salvador, a ship that set out from Varna, Bulgaria, a month ago, sinks in the Sea of Marmora; 200 Jewish refugees, including 70 children, drown. T. M. Snow, head of the British Foreign Office's Refugee Section, notes that "there could have been no more opportune disaster from the point of view of stopping this [Jewish refugee] traffic [to Palestine]."
 December 17, 1940: Drunk SS guards at the Sachsenhausen, Germany, labor camp awaken Jews during a frigid night and order them to roll in the snow.
 Late 1940-early 1941: The Jewish ghetto at Piotrków, Poland, is struck by an epidemic of typhus.
1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 209 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.