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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 218 
Ernst Cahn, a German-Jewish refugee, was part-owner of the Koco ice cream parlors in Amsterdam. Cahn and his partner, another Jewish émigré from Germany, were well liked by both Jews and gentiles of Amsterdam. After the Germans occupied the city, several customers purchased weapons for the owners and installed a 20-inch ammonia flask to the parlor wall to ward off unwanted visitors. When a German police patrol was sprayed with ammonia, a riot ensued. The event became known as the "Koco Affair."
Photo: Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The "Koco Affair" in Amsterdam instigated the Nazis' first roundup of Dutch Jews. German troops entered the Jonas Daniel Meyer Square in the Jewish Quarter of Amsterdam on February 22, 1941. They arrested and physically abused approximately 400 Jews, most of whom were then deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp. Ernst Cahn was shot by a firing squad on March 3 after refusing to name the individuals who had installed the ammonia canister in his shop.
Photo: Ruth Sherman / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
In what is almost certainly a propaganda photo created by the Nazi overseers of the Lódz Ghetto, Jewish surgeons and nurses operate on a patient. The actual state of ghetto health care was considerably more primitive.
Photo: Jerzy Tomaszewski / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 January-August 1941: About 13,000 Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto, and 5000 Jews in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, die of starvation.
 February 1941: Poles caught selling food to Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto are automatically sentenced to three years of hard labor. The daily bread ration for Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto is reduced to three ounces a day.
 February 1941: Jews deported to slave-labor camps along the Bug River are put to work draining marshes and building fortifications along the Soviet frontier.
 February 1, 1941: In France, Marcel Déat establishes a collaborationist Fascist party, Rassemblement National Populaire (National People's Rally).
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 218 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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