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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 248 
Hungarian Jews take a moment to rest and eat while en route to their final destination in the Ukraine. Laden with their belongings, this group was one of the many that was expelled from their homes by the Hungarian government. The deportation operations of July relocated almost 18,000 Jews to Kamenets-Podolski, Ukraine.
Photo: Hungarian National Museum / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Members of the Latvian SS practice their marksmanship in preparation for future assignments. The German occupation of Latvia in July 1941 not only filled the jails with political prisoners but also produced some 80,000 men for this SS legion. These troops were used in the campaign against the Soviet Union, and they actively participated in the killing of Jews and Communists. The most lethal Latvian killing unit, the Arajs Commando, killed some 30,000 Latvian Jews.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst
Maximilian Kolbe

Father Maximilian Kolbe, a Polish-Catholic priest and an inmate at the Auschwitz, Poland, concentration camp, sacrificed his life by volunteering to take the place of a fellow prisoner condemned to death. The Nazis agreed to the switch and brutally murdered the priest.

Incarcerated for disseminating his religious and social views, Kolbe continued to practice his faith at Auschwitz. In July 1941, when a prisoner from his block escaped from the camp, the SS ordered the execution of ten inmates as retribution. One of the selected victims, Francis Gajowniczek, pleaded for his life, sobbing over his wife and children. The priest stepped from the numbed, terrified ranks and offered himself, saying he had no family.

Locked naked in a dark, foul-smelling, underground cell, without food or water, he clung to life for two weeks. Impatient, the SS gave him a lethal injection of carbolic acid. In 1982 the Catholic Church canonized Kolbe as a saint.
Photo: Ullstein Bilderdienst

 July 25, 1941: In five separate incidents, Jews in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, throw gasoline bombs at Nazi cars.
 July 25-26, 1941: About 3800 Jews are killed in a pogrom at Kovno, Lithuania.
 July 25-27, 1941: Local Ukrainians at Lvov seize thousands of Jewish men and women and beat to death at least 2000. The killings are retribution for the 1926 murder of a Ukrainian antisemitic leader, Simon Petliura, by Shalom Schwarzbard, a Jew.
 July 27, 1941: Germans take 1200 Jews from Belgrade, Yugoslavia, to a camp at Tasmajdan, where every tenth captive is shot.
 July 27, 1941: In Holland, a collaborationist military force with ties to the SS, Freiwillingen Legion Niederlander (Dutch Volunteer Legion), is established.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 248 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.