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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 256 
A female inhabitant of the Warsaw Ghetto wears an armband that indicates her status as an employee of the ghetto administration. The task of administering the day-to-day operations within the ghettos of Eastern Europe was delegated to the Jews. In addition to the administrative machinery known as the Jewish councils, there were also Jewish police and a range of administrators. Although many of these people were reviled by fellow Jews for assisting the Nazi conquerors, they typically received preferential treatment. Among the perks were increased food rations, better housing assignments, and access to newer clothing.
Photo: Raphael Scharf / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Aided by antisemitic Lithuanian partisans, the SS's mobile killing squads organized Aktionen (actions) against the Jews. In Kovno, Jews were taken to various forts on the outskirts of town built during Czarist rule. From there they were organized into groups of 500, marched to huge pits a few miles away, and executed. Within the first months of German occupation, nearly 40,000 of Kovno's Jews were murdered.
Photo: Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
In August 1941 at Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine, members of Einsatzkommandos and local Ukrainian nationalists murdered about 25,000 Jews in huge open pits. Victims included 5000 local Jews as well as nearly 20,000 Jews who had been deported from Hungary.
Photo: Yad Vashem
 August 6, 1941: In Belgium, a collaborationist military unit, Legion Vlaandern (Flanders Legion), is established.
 August 8-9, 1941: Thousands of Jews from Dvinsk, Latvia, are transported to the Pogulanka Forest and murdered.
 August 14, 1941: All residents of the Jewish community of Lesko, Poland, are transported to Zaslaw, Poland, and executed.
 August 15, 1941: Heinrich Lohse, Reich commissioner for Eastern Territories of the Ostland (Eastern Europe) region, decrees that Jews must wear two yellow badges, one on the chest and one on the back; that Jews cannot own automobiles or radios; and that their presence in public places will be severely proscribed.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 256 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.