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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 261 
Bishop Clemens August Graf von Galen supported Nazi nationalism early on. Later, he attempted to stop the "euthanasia" program, denouncing it publicly in 1941. Although he did not participate in the July 1944 assassination attempt on Hitler's life, the Nazis linked Galen to it, and he was consequently imprisoned in the Sachsenhausen, Germany, concentration camp. Pope Pius XII made Galen a Roman Catholic cardinal on Christmas Day, 1945.
Photo: Bundesarchiv / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
French Jews faced increasing restrictions during 1941, including arrest and search by police, as this episode from Paris illustrates. Foreign Jews in France encountered even harsher measures, including detainment and deportation. Beginning in August of that year, foreign Jews were sent to the Drancy transit camp, from which they were sent to labor and concentration camps.
Photo: Bilderdienst Suddeutscher Verlag / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Under the watchful eye of French police, a Jewish man complies with the government order forbidding Jews to own radios. Such measures, enacted throughout 1941, were designed to oppress and isolate Jews as a prelude to their arrests and deportations. Meanwhile, the Vichy government pursued a policy of Aryanization involving the seizure of Jewish property and businesses.
Photo: Bibliotheque Nationale / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 September 1941: A nine-block section of Auschwitz is turned into a camp for Soviet POWs.
 September 1941: Chemists and mechanics at the RSHA (Reich Security Main Office) Criminal Technical Institute develop an execution van with engine exhaust directed to the sealed rear-cargo area.
 September 1, 1941: Jews in Slovakia, Bohemia, and Moravia are ordered to wear Yellow Stars, effective September 19, and to suspend all business activity.
 September 1, 1941: Ukrainian nationalist Ulas Samchuk, editor of the newspaper Volhyn, writes that Jews and Poles "must disappear completely from our cities."
 September 1, 1941: Because of Christian-German protests, Hitler suspends the "euthanasia" program. The program will continue unofficially, however.
 September 3, 1941: Six hundred Soviet prisoners of war and 300 Jews are "euthanized" at Auschwitz.
 September 3, 1941: Six Jews who refuse to serve on the Jewish Council at Dubossary, Ukraine, are publicly hanged. Later, 600 elderly Jews are driven into Dubossary's eight synagogues and burned alive when the synagogues are set ablaze.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 261 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.