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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 299 
These Viennese Jews were deported to the East. The Nazis hoped to make Vienna "Jew free," and shipped the city's Jews to ghettos in Poland beginning in 1939. On January 11, 1942, German authorities deported approximately 1500 Viennese Jews to Riga, Latvia, many of whom died on the journey. One survivor of the deportation remembered that "there was no water. The coaches were sealed....It was very cold, and we chipped off some ice from the windows to have water." The children and elderly who survived this ordeal were murdered upon reaching their destination.
Photo: Stadtarchiv Nuernberg / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Separated by a fence at the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, a sorrowful mother bids her son farewell as he awaits deportation from the Central Prison on Czarniecki Street. Among the first 10,000 targeted for "resettlement" in January 1942 were those serving sentences in the prison. In order to convince deportees that they were being sent to a labor camp, overseers handed out bread and sausage, as well as warm clothing.
Photo: YIVO / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
To encourage Lódz's Jews to participate in the deportations, the Germans distributed, according to the ghetto's chronicle, "twelve thousand pairs of warm underwear, earmuffs, gloves, stockings, socks, and clogs." This child is dressed for the frigid conditions to be experienced on the deportation trains.
Photo: YIVO / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 Early 1942: Christian Wirth, Nazi executions expert, hooks an armored-car diesel engine to the gas chambers at Belzec.
 January 1942: Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau. The bodies are buried in mass graves in a nearby meadow.
 January 1942: Nearly all of the remaining Jews in Odessa, Ukraine, are deported to concentration camps.
 January 1942: A special medical commission visits the Gross-Rosen, Germany, concentration camp to select human subjects for medical experimentation.
 January 1942: In France, Joseph Darnand establishes the Milice Française (French Militia), a Fascist paramilitary organization.
 January 1, 1942: In the U.S., the Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) is established to investigate and arrest suspected Nazi war criminals.
 January 1, 1942: The United Nations is formed in Washington, D.C., by 26 signatories who agree to work together to defeat the nations of the Tripartate Pact, and to work for a single, commonly shared resolution to the war.
 January 1, 1942: The Germans execute 23 Czechoslovakian workers for sabotage.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 299 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.