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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 401 
Even as conditions worsened within the Warsaw Ghetto, its intellectuals and artists, some seeking to perpetuate Hebrew and others Yiddish, struggled to keep culture alive. Writer, poet, and publisher Aaron Luboshitzki was a leader in the effort to further Hebrew literature. During a prolific career, he wrote textbooks, articles, poems, and plays, and established several publishing houses. He was killed by the Nazis in Warsaw in 1942.
Photo: Beth Hatefutsoth
A scene from the Nazi documentary film Between Vistula and Rhine shows members of the SS engaged in a deportation operation in Warsaw. Notice that the image portrays the soldiers going about their duties calmly. The tremendous brutality that accompanied the roundups was not part of the propaganda films produced by the Nazis. The elimination of Polish Jewry was presented as a relocation operation, not programmatic genocide.
Photo: Documentary Film Archives / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Agents from the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst (Security Police) interrogate a Jewish girl found with banknotes hidden in the heels of her shoes. Jews, deprived of their property and possessions, sought to tuck away whatever valuables they could as they prepared for deportation. Parents, fearful that they might be separated from their children, tried to give them money or gems so that they might better fend for themselves.
Photo: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 December 18, 1942: When Jewish forced laborers at Kruszyna, Poland, refuse to board trucks, more than 100 of them are shot.
 December 18, 1942: British Ambassador to the Vatican Francis d'Arcy Osborne asserts that Pope Pius XII "does not see that his silence is highly damning to the Holy See."
 Late 1942: Nineteen members of a Belorussian partisan group led by Tuvia Bielski are ambushed and killed by German soldiers
 December 19, 1942: After three weeks trapped in a synagogue by hostile Ukrainian troops, 42 Jewish men are marched to the Rakow Forest and ordered to dig ditches. They resist and are then shot. A few manage to escape. Later in the day, 560 more Jews are led from the synagogue to the forest and murdered.
 December 22, 1942: Nazi troops gathered at Cyganeria, a coffee house in Kraków, Poland, are attacked by Jewish partisans. Several SS officers as well as two partisans, including partisan leader Aharon Liebeskind, are murdered during the attack.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 401 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.