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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 409 
Inside the Warsaw Ghetto, a worker drags an emaciated body from the street. In January 1943 the Germans initiated a new deportation from the ghetto. For the first time, Jews resisted with force, using their few weapons to fight the Germans on the streets and in the ghetto's buildings. These skirmishes raised morale and provided vital experience for the decisive struggle that would begin a few months later.
Photo: Ullstein Bilderdienst
Ragged children wait in front of a brick wall in the Warsaw Ghetto. By winter 1942-43, conditions within the ghetto were abominable. Pipes froze and raw sewage spewed into the streets. Typhus raged throughout the ghetto, and starvation rations were exacting a heavy toll on the Jewish populace. Upwards of 5000 people a month were dying, and those who clung to life were miserable beyond description.
Photo: Ghetto FighterÕs House / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Prisoners held at Dachau work in a nearby armaments factory. Perhaps a third of the slave laborers were Jewish; the remainder were political dissidents, clergymen, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and Soviet POWs. The exploitation of slave labor and the extension of the war effort fueled the camp's growth. Dachau eventually included 36 subcamps that utilized 37,000 prisoners as forced laborers. The vast majority of these workers were engaged in armaments production.
Photo: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 January 1943: As the year begins, 10,000 Jews are performing forced labor in factories throughout Germany.
 January 1943: The last 27 Jews in Bilgoraj, Poland, are flushed from hiding and killed.
 January 1943: Nearly 870 children, invalids, and medical personnel are sent from Holland to Auschwitz.
 January 1943: A Soviet military victory on the River Don engulfs 50,000 Hungarian Jews utilized as forced labor on the Eastern Front; more than 40,000 are killed in combat between German and Soviet forces. Many thousands more are captured and mistreated by both the Soviets and Axis POWs.
 January 1943: An SS instruction sheet for implementation of death sentences at extermination camps decrees that executions by hanging are to be carried out by designated prisoners; payment will be three cigarettes.
 January 1943: Jewish Resistance members in the Warsaw Ghetto begin to split into 22 groups. They construct shelters and bunkers and even create tunnels that lead to the gentile portion of the city.
 January 1943: Moshe Fish and Leva Gilchik, Jews who formed a partisan group in forests outside Kleck, Poland, in July 1942, die in battle against German troops.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 409 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.