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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 433 
Miriam Szyfman-Fainer and Moyshe Koyfman, members of the Bund, stroll through the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto. The Bund was a Jewish Socialist organization that had loose but cordial ties with the general Socialist movement in Poland. In the ghettos of Poland, members of the Bund were deeply involved in the Resistance movements. Szyfman-Fainer and Koyfman both perished in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.
Photo: YIVO / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
With barbed wire strung across its top, the Vilna gate separated the ghetto from the rest of the city. The Germans established two ghettos at Vilna in September 1941, but they moved within weeks to liquidate the smaller of the two, whose members did not have a Schein (work permit). For about a year, beginning in spring 1942, there were no major deportations, as the ghetto residents sought to ensure their survival by producing goods for the German war effort. This drawing by Z. Weiner dates from 1942-43.
Photo: Beth Hatefutsoth
A parade of doomed souls stretches toward the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Exhausted by their endless journeys from distant towns and villages, trainloads of victims arrived to face Josef Mengele, whose flick of a finger meant life or death. French Resistance member Charlotte Delbo, imprisoned at Auschwitz, described the station as a place where arrival and departure became synonymous.
Photo: Archive Photos 799
 March 1943: Thousands of Jews are shot at Minsk, Belorussia; 50 escape and join the "Revenge" partisan group.
 March 1943: The Bulgarian Army assists with Nazi deportations of Jews from Macedonia and Thrace to death camps in Poland.
 March 1943: Extermination activity is temporarily halted at the Chelmno, Poland, death camp; See June 23, 1944.
 March-July 1943: The SS mounts an ongoing effort at the Treblinka death camp to eliminate evidence of mass murder.
 Early March 1943: Jews of Thrace and Macedonia are arrested and transported by train and barge to the Treblinka death camp.
 March 1, 1943: One hundred Jews from Paderborn, Germany, are deported to Auschwitz.
 March 1, 1943: A massive "Stop Hitler Now" rally takes place in New York City's Madison Square Garden.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 433 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.