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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 450 
The razing of the Warsaw Ghetto enabled the Nazis to apprehend thousands of Resistance fighters. Most Jews hiding in bunkers, such as these two men, were either killed or captured. The final hours and minutes of bunker-based resistance were frightening and savage: the cacophony of shouts and gunfire from above; footfalls that came increasingly closer; and the inevitable discovery, which culminated in suicidal firefights or rough hands that dragged the resisters blinking into the daylight.
Photo: Archiwum Akt Nowych / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The Jews in this photo have been removed from bunkers and now await their fate--probably deportation to Treblinka.
Photo: Ullstein Bilderdienst 2 15 330 91 50 - 7
Yitzhak Zuckerman

Born in Vilna, Lithuania, Yitzhak Zuckerman joined a Zionist youth movement, devoting himself to educating Jewish youth in Hebrew and Yiddish. Following the German invasion of Poland, he left for the Soviet-occupied area, but Zionist leaders later ordered him to return to continue his teaching and to develop a Jewish underground organization.

Zuckerman argued that educating the young was "meaningless...unless...an armed Jewish self-defense force would come into being." However, his pleas for armed resistance were initially rejected by the Warsaw Ghetto leaders. He became one of the founders of Zydowska Organizacaja Bojowa (ZOB; Jewish Fighting Organization) and was one of the heroic commanders of the Warsaw Ghetto revolt. Ordered to leave the ghetto to serve as a liaison to the Polish underground and to procure weapons, he returned through the sewers in the ghetto's last days to rescue survivors. Zuckerman died in 1981.
Photo: Jewish Historical Institute / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive

 May 3, 1943: German troops in the "Aryan" section of Warsaw arrest and kill 21 women who are Jewish or suspected of being Jewish.
 May 3, 1943: A Jewish man named Rakowski, an underground leader at the Treblinka death camp, is shot when currency intended to bribe Ukrainians to help him and a few others escape is discovered in his barrack.
 May 4, 1943-May 25, 1943: Four deportations of Jews from Holland to the death camps at Auschwitz and Sobibór total 8000 people.
 May 6, 1943: Hajj Amin al-Husseini, grand mufti of Jerusalem, suggests to the Bulgarian foreign minister that Bulgarian-Jewish children should be sent to Poland rather than to Palestine.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 450 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.