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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 460 
At the Mauthausen, Austria, concentration camp, Kapos and a German guard stand over the corpse of an inmate whom they have just beaten to death. According to eyewitnesses, the prisoner had stumbled from the barracks in need of medical treatment, behavior his captors found offensive and deserving of a painful and gruesome death.
Photo: AP/Wide World
These bodies await cremation in the ovens at the Mauthausen, Austria, concentration camp, where around 103,000 people died during the years 1938 to 1945. One survivor of Mauthausen, George E. King, said he often dreamt about escaping. "You go through this agonizing labor of trying to escape," he said about his dreams. "In these cases you are always moving in slow motion, as if you were up to your hips in mud....You are making a maximum effort to run but you are just barely moving."
Photo: AP/Wide World
This shirt was worn by the chief of a group of Romanian Gypsies known as the Calderai. Like other Gypsies, the owner, Gheorge Ciaoba, wore brightly colored clothes on special occasions. The shirt is from the years 1942 to 1945, during which the Nazis viciously persecuted the Gypsies, who were often (and easily) identified by their distinctive garments.
Photo: Gheorge Cioaba / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 June 16, 1943: In Berlin, 200 patients are deported from the city's Jewish hospital to the Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, camp/ghetto.
 June 16, 1943: German authorities declare Berlin judenrein --purged of Jews.
 June 20, 1943: Five thousand Jews from Amsterdam are deported to Auschwitz.
 June 20, 1943: The Ternopol (Ukraine) Ghetto is liquidated.
 June 21, 1943: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in the Soviet Union.
 June 21, 1943: The Jews remaining in the Lvov (Ukraine) Ghetto are hunted and killed, including 350 of 500 discovered in the city's sewer system.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 460 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.