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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 463 
These Amsterdam Jews are being rounded up for deportation to Auschwitz in 1943. Numerous Dutch citizens befriended the 110,000 Jews and 30,000 immigrant Jews residing in Holland. However, many Dutch in the government and on the police force collaborated with the Germans. The last roundup, which netted 5000 Jews, took place in September 1943.
Photo: Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Warily gazing out at the photographer, Dutch children in the Kallenburg district of Amsterdam huddle together for warmth and comfort. As the years of Nazi occupation wore on, conditions worsened for all civilians, and especially for the most vulnerable, children and the elderly. Photographer Emmy Andreisse, a member of the Dutch Resistance, recorded conditions in the Netherlands under the occupation.
Photo: Pretenkabinet - Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Beautiful grand pianos were among the many items the Nazis confiscated from the Jews of Prague, Czechoslovakia, and other locations. The genocide perpetrated against European Jewry was accompanied by the systematic expropriation of Jewish wealth. Anything perceived to be of value was taken, registered, and shipped to an appropriate warehouse.
Photo: Yad Vashem FA-155
 July 5, 1943: The Germans launch a major armored offensive at Kursk, Russia, initiating the largest tank battle in history; See July 23, 1943.
 July 5, 1943: Heinrich Himmler orders that Sobibór, a death camp, be made a concentration camp.
 July 6, 1943: More than 2400 Jews are deported from Holland to Sobibór.
 July 10, 1943: Allies land in Sicily.
 July 10, 1943: Thousands of Jews from Lvov, Ukraine, are murdered at Kamenka-Bugskaya.
 July 11, 1943: Martin Bormann, Hitler's secretary, issues a top-level directive on Hitler's behalf, instructing that public discussion of Jews must not mention "a future overall solution," but only that Jews are being assembled for labor.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 463 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.