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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 486 
Pictured is a child prisoner of the Jugendschutzlager (Youth "Protection" Camp), located in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto. The Jugendschutzlager, for non-Jewish Poles, was established in December 1942. About 10,000 children passed through its gates; most were subsequently killed at Chelmno and Auschwitz.
Photo: LydiaChagoll / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Vladka Meed, who used this false identification card of Stanislawa Wachalska to live on the Aryan side of Warsaw, utilized her position on behalf of the ghetto's Resistance movement. Besides procuring guns for the ZOB fighters, she helped smuggle Jews out of the ghetto and found shelter for them. The heroics of Meed and others like her were critical to the success of Resistance movements in Warsaw and other Polish ghettos.
Photo: Benjamin Meed / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Jews in Hiding

Throughout Europe, in attics and basements, in secret cupboards so small they could barely crouch, Jews struggled to hide themselves from their Nazi persecutors. Sometimes they were hidden by gentile friends; sometimes by complete strangers.

In Amsterdam, the Frank family, along with several others, hid for months in a secret annex, supplied with the essentials of life by Miep Gies. Dutch woman Dieuwke Hofstede (pictured) opened her doors to Henny Kalkstein (right). Convents and monasteries also hid Jewish children. In the northern Italian town of Assisi, Father Rufino Niccacci supplied Jews with forged identity papers and helped them to find homes and work. In France, the entire village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, guided by its pastor, André Trocmé, was committed to hiding/protecting Jewish refugees.

In Eastern Europe, finding a hiding place was extremely difficult. Although many Poles were antisemitic and many others feared the consequences of aiding Jews, some Poles responded to the cries for help. Irene Gut Opdyke hid 12 Jews in the house of a German officer for whom she worked as a housekeeper. In Wlodawa, Poland, a Jewish man named Yankel lived for a year in a hole in the floor of a barn. The farm itself was occupied by German soldiers.
Photo: Henny Kalkstein Reemy / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive

 October 4, 1943: In an address to senior SS officers, SS chief Heinrich Himmler notes that killing is hard but necessary, and that killing the Jews will never be spoken of publicly.
 October 6, 1943: A Jew posing as a Catholic, Helen Manaster is called out of the delivery room in the Kraków, Poland, hospital while in labor pains to face two Gestapo agents. She keeps her calm and the Gestapo agents tell her to go back to bed.
 October 7, 1943: A Jewish partisan unit active near Vilna, Lithuania, destroys more than 50 telegraph poles lining the road from Vilna to Grodno.
 October 7, 1943: In an official report, the German chief of police in Poland recommends that Poles who aid Jews should be dealt with without benefit of trial.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 486 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.