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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 496 

The "Jewish Army," a French partisan group, operated from 1942 to 1944. The group smuggled French Jews into neutral Spain, procured money to aid Jews in hiding, and participated in 1944 uprisings in Paris, Toulouse, and Lyon.
Bernard Lichtenberg, the provost of St. Hedwig's Cathedral in Berlin, was one of the few German clergymen to speak out against the Nazi regime. He joined Archbishop Clemens August Graf von Galen of Münster in opposing the "euthanasia" measures and openly prayed for the well-being of Jews. Arrested by the Gestapo, Lichtenberg boldly proclaimed that he wished to join the Jews who had been deported. His two years of imprisonment ruined his health, but that did not deter the Nazis from sending him to Dachau after his release from prison.
Photo: Bilderdienst SYddeutscher Verlag
U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt signs the UNRRA agreement in November 1943. The UNRRA was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency. The agency was sponsored by the Allies but, during its five-year life span, was funded mostly by money from the United States. Headed by former New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, the UNRRA was of great help to non-Jews and, secondarily, to Jews living in displaced-persons camps.
Photo: Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 November 3-4, 1943: The Germans undertake Erntefest (Harvest Festival), a planned massacre of Jews of three camps in the Lublin, Poland, area. About 18,000 are murdered at Majdanek, 10,000 at Trawniki, and 15,000 at Poniatowa. At Poniatowa, Jews who resist are burned alive in a barrack.
 November 4, 1943: The Germans put down an inmate revolt at the slave-labor camp at Szebnie, Poland. The camp is liquidated; about 3000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz.
 November 6, 1943: Five weeks after escaping from a work detail at the Babi Yar, Ukraine, mass-murder site, about 14 Jews and Soviet POWs come out of hiding to greet the Red Army as it liberates Kiev, Ukraine.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 496 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.