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1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 541 
Hitler, his right hand trembling following the explosion, inspects the aftermath of the July 20 bombing. To Hitler's right stands his ally, Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator who had fallen from power and was rescued from imprisonment on Hitler's orders. Between them is Paul Schmidt, diplomat and Hitler's personal interpreter. Schmidt later wrote a memoir describing Hitler's personality.
Photo: Bundesarchiv
Ludwig Beck served as chief of the German Army's General Staff. Initially welcoming Hitler's takeover of the German government, Beck feared a protracted war and resigned as chief of staff in 1938. Afterward, he participated in the "Wednesday Club" of intellectuals, economists, and politicians opposed to Hitler. One of the leading July 20 plotters, Beck was considered a likely candidate to replace Hitler as German chief of state. Before he could be arrested, he unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide. A soldier with the Guard Battalion finished him off.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, a former mayor of Leipzig, Germany, and former Nazi official, was involved in the plot to assassinate Hitler. Goerdeler, a unifying force among the July conspirators, was intended to become German chancellor, replacing Hitler, had the conspiracy succeeded. He was arrested, tried before the People's Court, and executed in February 1945.
Photo: Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 July 10, 1944: Thirty Jews are shot after being discovered in the "Aryan" section of Warsaw.
 July 12, 1944: Many of the 8000 Jews remaining in the Kovno (Lithuania) Ghetto are killed, and the ghetto is burned. Nearby, a Lithuanian carpenter named Jan Pauvlavicius shields at least eight Kovno Jews in a hiding place he has constructed in his cellar.
 July 14, 1944: Hungarian Jews held at the Reval, Estonia, slave-labor camp are shot in a nearby forest.
 July 14, 1944: Germans murder hundreds of POWs and Jewish partisans at Vercors, France.
 July 14, 1944: Forty-two Jews laboring in workshops at the Pawiak prison in Warsaw are executed by Germans anticipating a Red Army assault.
 July 15, 1944: The Germans deport 7000 Jews assembled in the ghetto at Siauliai, Lithuania, to the Stutthof, Germany, concentration camp. One hundred Jews who are left behind are killed where they stand; See July 27, 1944.
1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 541 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.