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1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 559 
On July 8, 1944, three weeks before the Soviets liberated the Kovno (Lithuania) Ghetto, the Nazis forced Jews from underground bunkers with dogs, smoke grenades, and firebombs. Two thousand Jews died, while 4000 others were sent to camps in Germany. The Germans were very successful in Lithuania because elements at all levels of Lithuanian society collaborated with the Germans to "rid the nation" of the Jewish "vermin."
Photo: Yad Vashem
The Ninth Fort, part of the original defense system of Kovno, Lithuania, was the site where Germans and Lithuanians murdered nearly 10,000 Jews in October 1941. Later, tens of thousands of other Jews from all over Europe also were killed there. This photograph reveals graffiti left by Jews about to be murdered. Some messages were simple memorials. Others asked for revenge. Still others noted that Jews were "dying for our Jewish nation with pride."
Photo: George Kadish/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
U.S. Army troops and supplies land at a beach in southern France in support of the Allied invasion of the area on August 30, 1944. This attack coincided with the ongoing Normandy assault in northern France. The invasion of the south incidentally liberated Jews hiding in the Vichy-controlled area, but it did not have a major impact on the Holocaust since most Jews were located in Eastern Europe.
Photo: Corbis-Bettmann
 September 12, 1944: Jewish slave laborers work near Lieberose, Germany, to build a vacation complex for German officers; See December 1944.
 September 13, 1944: Ineffective Soviet air drops of supplies are made to Warsaw resistance fighters.
 September 15, 1944: Nancy, France, is liberated by Allied troops.
 September 16, 1944: Bulgaria declares war on Germany following a Communist coup.
 September 17, 1944: The Germans begin the evacuation of the forced-labor copper-mine camp at Bor, Hungary. Sixty of these laborers are shot to death during the march and 600 are shot after arriving at their destination, the kiln of a brickworks at Cservenka, Hungary.
 September 17, 1944: Near Verona, Italy, 23-year-old Rita Rosani, the Jewish leader of an Italian partisan group, is killed in a battle with German troops.
1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 559 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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