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1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 569 
Among the primary goals of Hungary's new Arrow Cross government was to cooperate with the Germans in their efforts to exterminate Hungary's Jews. Pictured here are the leaders of the Arrow Cross movement at a rally held at the time of the coup that toppled the Horthy government. Note the similarity between the Arrow Cross and Nazi salutes as well as similarly declarative insignia and symbology.
Photo: Hungarian National Museum Historical Photographic Archives/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
On October 15, 1944, the Hungarian Fascist organization Arrow Cross staged a coup, with German support, against the government of Admiral Miklós Horthy, whom the Arrow Cross branded as "a hireling of the Jews and a traitor to his country." The Nazis supported the new government because of the violent antisemitism of its leadership. This photograph shows the swearing in of Ferenc Szálasi, chief of the Arrow Cross movement, as Hungary's new leader.
Photo: Jewish Museum of the Dohany Synagogue/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
After the October 15 coup, the Arrow Cross government gave free rein to the Hungarian people's long-standing hatred of Jews. Here we see Arrow Cross members beating Jews in Budapest's Kalman Tisza's square. A series of violent actions against Budapest's Jewish population characterized the days after the Arrow Cross takeover. The SS and Arrow Cross rounded up thousands of Jews. However, international protests forced the Hungarian government to release the Jews, who escaped (at least temporarily) almost certain death.
Photo: Bundesarchiv/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 October 26, 1944: Munkács, Hungary, is liberated by Soviet troops.
 October 27, 1944: Nazis tramping through the Warsaw Ghetto discover a hidden bunker. They kill the seven Jews inside after the Jews open fire.
 October 28, 1944: A train from Bolzano, Italy, reaches Auschwitz with 301 prisoners. Of these, 137 are immediately gassed.
 October 30, 1944: The final deportation train from Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, to Auschwitz arrives at the camp. Of the 2038 prisoners on board, 1689 are immediately gassed.
 October 30, 1944: The Germans transfer Anne Frank to Bergen-Belsen; See March 1945.
 Late October 1944: Eighteen-year-old Jehovah's Witness Jonathan Stark is hanged by Nazis at Sachsenhausen, Germany, where he had been interned because of his refusal to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.
 November 1944: Twelve thousand Jews from Stutthof, Germany, including 4000 women, undertake a forced death march southwest into Germany. Hundreds are killed or die of exhaustion along the 500-plus-mile route.
1944: Desperate Acts
 pg. 569 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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