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1945: Liberation and Rebuilding
 pg. 584 
In January 1945 the Red Army liberated the deadliest of the Third Reich's death camps, Auschwitz-Birkenau, where an estimated 1.1 million had died, most of them in the camp's gas chambers. These children were among the few who survived imprisonment in Birkenau.
Photo: Corbis-Bettmann
A Red Army soldier films a destroyed crematorium at Auschwitz. The dismantling of crematoria at Birkenau happened in phases. Crematorium IV was destroyed in the Sonderkommando uprising of October 7, 1944, while rebellious Jews demolished II on November 25. The remants of II, III and the still operational V were blown up by the Nazis in late January 1945.
Photo: State Museum of Aushwitz-Birkenau/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 January 4, 1945: Fritz Elsas, the Jewish mayor of Berlin until his arrest for alleged resistance activities in 1933, is executed at Sachsenhausen, Germany, after 12 years of imprisonment.
 January 6, 1945: Roza Robota and three other Jewish women implicated in the smuggling of explosives used in the October 7, 1944, uprising at Auschwitz are hanged.
 January 6, 1945: Hungarian authorities accede to Raoul Wallenberg's request that 5000 Jews be transferred to Swiss-sponsored safe homes in Budapest.
 January 6, 1945: Anne Frank's mother, Edith, dies at Auschwitz.
 January 11-14, 1945: Hungarian Fascist Nyilas thugs enter "protected" Jewish houses throughout Budapest, murdering dozens of residents. The bodies of many are hurled into the Danube River. Elsewhere in Budapest, Nyilas members surround the Jewish Orthodox Hospital. They torture 92 patients, doctors, and nurses, killing everyone except a single nurse.
1945: Liberation and Rebuilding
 pg. 584 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.