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EPILOGUE: The Aftermath
 pg. 659 
Kazet Theatre, a survivor theater troupe, performs The Death Colony at the Bergen-Belsen DP camp. The troupe played before DP audiences throughout Europe in 1947.
Photo: Gedenkstaette Bergen-Belsen / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
This bronze monument, "Memorial to the Victims in Camps," was sculpted by Nandor Glid and stands on the grounds of Yad Vashem in Jerusalem.
Photo: Ullstein Bilderdienst
Useless knowledge. That's what Charlotte Delbo said her experience in Auschwitz and Ravensbrück gave her. She was not Jewish. Nevertheless, Delbo was sent to Auschwitz in 1943. Of the 230 Frenchwomen in her convoy, she was one of the 49 who survived. Delbo saw what happened to the Jews, her French comrades, and herself. An Auschwitz fate, however, did not have to be hers. When the Germans occupied her native France in June 1940, Delbo was on tour in South America with a theater company. Against the advice of friends, she returned to France in 1941, rejoining her husband, Georges Dudach, and working with him in the Resistance.

Arrested by collaborating French police on March 2, 1942, the couple was handed over to the Germans, who imprisoned the two separately. Delbo had a brief visit with her husband just before a firing squad executed him on May 23. A prisoner in France until her deportation, Delbo describes her Auschwitz arrival in January 1943 as follows: "The doors of the cattle cars were pushed open, revealing the edge of an icy plain. It was a place from before geography. Where were we? We were to find out--later, at least two months hence; we, that is those of us who were still alive two months later--that this place was called Auschwitz. We couldn't have given it a name."

Those words come from Delbo's superb trilogy, Auschwitz et après (Auschwitz and After), whose anguished visual descriptions and profound reflections on memory make it an unrivaled Holocaust testimony. Its three parts begin with Aucun de nous ne reviendra (None of Us Will Return), which she wrote in 1946 after she had been released to the Red Cross from Ravensbrück, a Nazi camp for women. She recuperated in Sweden and then returned to France. Delbo waited nearly 20 years, however, before she allowed None of Us Will Return to be published in 1965. Parts of Une connaissance inutile (Useless Knowledge) were also written shortly after Delbo's return to France, but this second volume in the trilogy did not appear until 1970. Its sequel, Mesure de nos jours (The Measure of Our Days), soon followed.

"Auschwitz," Delbo said in La mémoire et les jours (Days and Memory), "is so deeply etched in my memory that I cannot forget one moment of it."

 August 16, 1947-July 31, 1948: The Krupp Trial of 12 senior Krupp executives takes place. Eleven are sentenced to prison; one is acquitted. All sentences will eventually be commuted to time served.
 August 20, 1947: The "doctors' trial" at Nuremberg concludes. Sixteen of 23 physician/defendants are found guilty. Seven are sentenced to death, five to life imprisonment, two to 20 years' imprisonment, one to 15 years' imprisonment, and one to ten years' imprisonment. The remaining seven are acquitted.
 Late August 1947: The Nuremberg Code, a ten-point statement of rules designed to protect the human rights of research subjects, is issued following the doctors' trial.
 September 8, 1947: British troops in Palestine use tear gas to prevent the landing of the Jewish-refugee ship Exodus.
 November 3, 1947: The trial of Oswald Pohl, SS general in charge of camp works projects and the disposition of stolen valuables, concludes.
EPILOGUE: The Aftermath
 pg. 659 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.