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1933: The Nazi State Begins
 pg. 66 
The Führer digs the ceremonial first shovelful of dirt to inaugurate the building of the Autobahn. Hitler's participation in this and other groundbreaking ceremonies created the impression of a government addressing the financial woes of Germany's legions of unemployed. Instituted in the summer of 1933, the Nazi economic program known as the Reinhardt Plan allocated an enormous amount of money for public works projects. Directed by Fritz Todt, the Autobahn program was highly visible and popular, bringing jobs for construction workers and engineers while simultaneously stimulating the automobile industry. The Autobahn would also be helpful during the war, providing quick transport for troops and materiel.
Photo: William O. McWorkman/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The closing of German gay bars spurred the creation of this collage, Der Notschrei (The Scream for Help). The pictures offer a poignant but ultimately futile plea for help. The Nazi attacks on homosexuality, particularly after the murder of Ernst Röhm and the crushing of the SA in 1934, were rooted in their campaigns against all forms of "degeneracy." Hitler feared that homosexuals in positions of leadership undermined his government's ability to rule effectively.
Photo: Schwules Museum/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Gatherings of Nazi Storm Troopers, such as this one in Dortmund, Germany, were common in the early years of Nazi rule. Arranged to accentuate Hitler's popularity, public rallies replete with swastika banners and paramilitary organizations (outfitted in starched uniforms and polished boots) appealed to the militaristic values deeply embedded within German society. Positioned as the antithesis to the weak and disgraced Weimar Republic, the Nazis effectively presented themselves as the legitimate heirs to the mythical Teutonic knights and the legendary Prussian military machine.
Photo: Cigaraetten-Bilderdienst Altona-Bahrenfeld
 June 1, 1933: Germany introduces the Law for Reduction of Unemployment, which provides for marriage loans and other incentives to genetically "fit" Germans.
 June 16, 1933: Unknown assailants murder Chaim Arlosoroff, a Labor Zionist leader.
 June 26, 1933: The Akademie für Deutsches Recht (Academy for German Law) is founded to rewrite the entire body of German law to NSDAP specifications.
 June 27, 1933: At a rally in London, speakers protest antisemitism in Nazi Germany.
1933: The Nazi State Begins
 pg. 66 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.