Home Contact Us
Index Purchase Info
About Site About Us
Appendices Credits
Further Reading Links
Special Features
By Keyword:

Page Number:
Click on an image to see a larger, more detailed picture.
EPILOGUE: The Aftermath
 pg. 684 
A memorial was dedicated to the mostly Jewish victims of the massacre at Babi Yar, near Kiev in Ukraine, where the Germans murdered tens of thousands of innocents.
Photo: Beth Hatefutsoth
Catholic defenders of Pius XII take strong exception to views of that sort. The result is that stresses and strains in Jewish-Roman Catholic relations are likely to be exacerbated if steps toward sainthood for Pius XII are taken any time soon.

Whether those tensions can be relaxed depends in part on one more vexing issue, which focuses on the Vatican's archives and especially its holdings from the reign of Pius XII. As the 21st century arrives, a flood of new archival material has appeared, much of it coming into Western view from Soviet and Eastern European archives that became accessible only at the end of the Cold War. Among the recently available documents, for example, is a calendar/diary that SS leader Heinrich Himmler kept. Portions of self-serving memoirs by Adolf Eichmann also have surfaced. These new archival findings, which are in relatively early stages of scholarly assessment, will further detail and perhaps importantly revise the best understandings of the Holocaust that we have thus far. Be that as it may, the Vatican's Holocaust-era archives have yet to be fully opened to Holocaust scholars. As long as that situation remains, our understanding of Pius XII and Vatican policies during the Nazi period will remain ambiguous at best. How the Vatican's Holocaust-related opportunities--past, present, and future--are assessed, bungled, or put to sensible use will continue to be an area where Holocaust repercussions are sure to be keenly felt.

This is the Holocaust memorial at Majdanek, one of the six major death camps located in Poland.
Photo: Beth Hatefutsoth
Survivor Legacies

While no "official" definition exists and not every victim or survivor of the Holocaust was Jewish, Holocaust survivors are primarily those children, women, and men who were defined as Jews by Nazi Germany, lived under the rule or occupation of Nazi Germany and its collaborators, and yet eluded the total annihilation that Nazi policy intended for Jews in Europe and even worldwide. Every Holocaust survivor's experience is distinctive because survival involved different circumstances, times, and places. Some escaped Nazi persecution before World War II began in 1939 or before the "Final Solution" became Nazi Germany's official policy in 1941.

 1993: Film director Steven Spielberg releases Schindler's List, the story of German industrialist Oskar Schindler
 April 1993: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum opens in Washington, D.C.
 Late 1993: American resident John Demjanjuk, convicted in Jerusalem in 1988 of war crimes, is released from prison by the Israeli Supreme Court because of insufficient evidence.
 1994: Britain's war-crimes investigation unit is shut down following the unsuccessful prosecution of a suspected former Nazi war criminal.
 1994: Argentina lifts its ban on extradition of criminals convicted in absentia by other countries.
 1994: Hollywood film director Steven Spielberg founds the Shoah Foundation, a nonprofit concern dedicated to videotaping interviews with Holocaust survivors, rescuers, and witnesses.
 1994: Sabine Zlatin, who founded the Children's Home of Izieu in France in 1944, opens a memorial museum for the children near the site of the home; See April 6, 1944.
EPILOGUE: The Aftermath
 pg. 684 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.