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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 234 
By the spring of 1941, conditions inside Poland's Warsaw Ghetto were hellish. Food was scarce, clothing consisted mainly of old rags, and medical supplies were virtually nonexistent.
Photo: Rafael Scharf / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Under harsh circumstances, the children of the ghetto suffered horribly.
Photo: Rafael Scharf / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 June 18, 1941: Germany and Turkey sign a friendship treaty.
 Summer 1941: In Belorussia, a guerrilla collaborationist organization, Belaruskaya Narodnaya Partizanka (Belorussian National Guerrillas), is established.
 Summer 1941: In Denmark, a collaborationist SS organization, Freikorps Danmark (Danish Free Corps), is established.
 Summer 1941: In Latvia, Viktor Arajs establishes the Perkonkrusts (Thunder Cross), a collaborationist paramilitary unit.
 Summer 1941: Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, tells Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz, that Hitler has ordered that the "Jewish question" be solved once and for all and that the SS is to implement that order. Auschwitz is the death camp that is to carry out the greater part of the Jewish extermination. Mass gassings, not shootings, are determined to be the most effective means to exterminate the large numbers of Jews.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 234 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.