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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 257 
An identification card issued to Sam Schrijver, a Jew, on August 29, 1941, in Amsterdam. After the Germans occupied Holland, Schrijver was actively involved in the Dutch underground, for whom he fashioned false identification cards and smuggled ration coupons. Arrested in 1943, Schrijver endured numerous beatings and lengthy periods of incarceration. He escaped from Westerbork a few days before the camp was liberated.
Photo: Samuel Schryver / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Following their invasion of Yugoslavia, the Germans divided the country into several regions. They placed Serbia and Banat under their direct control and initiated actions against the Jewish population. In this photo, Jews from Zrenjanin in the Banat region prepare for deportation to the Tasmajdan concentration camp, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia. There they would be executed. In August of 1942, German leaders could proudly proclaim the area judenrein (cleansed of Jews).
Photo: Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Life in the ghettos in 1941 remained a torment for the residents, whom the Germans regularly mistreated. Here, a German soldier dangles a Jewish woman in the Vilna (Lithuania) Ghetto by her hair. Germans were taught not to think of the Jews as human, which made it easier for them to liquidate the ghettos once the death camps were established.
Photo: Jewish State Museum of Lithuania / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 August 15, 1941: A Jewish ghetto is established at Riga, Latvia.
 August 15, 1941: At the Kovno, Lithuania, suburb of Viliampole, the last of Kovno's 26,000 surviving Jews arrive. Each is allotted three square feet of living space.
 August 19, 1941: Einsatzkommando 8 as well as local collaborators in Mogilev, Belorussia, kill more than 3000 Jews.
 August 20-21, 1941: About 4300 Jews are sent from Paris to Drancy, a transit camp in France. These are the first of 70,000 Jews who will be deported to Drancy and then to extermination camps, primarily Auschwitz-Birkenau.
 August 21, 1941: A concentration camp begins operations at Jasenovac, Croatia.
 August 24, 1941: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill broadcasts to the British public that "scores of thousands" of executions of civilians are being perpetrated by German troops in the Soviet Union. In order not to reveal that British Intelligence has cracked the German radio code, Churchill makes no specific mention of the plight of Jews in the Soviet Union or elsewhere in Occupied Europe.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 257 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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