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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 363 
The Lódz Ghetto deportations often separated families--husbands from wives, parents from children. Saying goodbye to loved ones being deported was a traumatic experience. In the vast majority of cases, family members would never see each other again.
Photo: Ghetto FightersÕ House / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Many of the victims of the Gehsperre deportations, from the Lódz Ghetto in September 1942, sought to escape their fate by fleeing. But those attempting to elude deportation were summarily shot. This photograph shows Jewish policemen--who had been promised that their children would be spared if they participated--rounding up women and children attempting to escape from the assembly point at the Jewish hospital on Drewnowska Street.
Photo: YIVO / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
This man was among the many killed during the Gehsperre action in Lódz, even before the deportation to Chelmno. The action proceeded with unprecedented speed, beginning with the sick in the hospitals and moving on to the elderly and children. People were transported in five-ton trucks to the train station outside the ghetto, where they were shipped to the death camp in trains or trucks. Some were even forced to walk. Often friends and family did not know that someone had been deported until well after he or she was gone. Operation Gehsperre was part of a larger effort, Operation Reinhard, to kill all of the Jews in the Generalgouvernement.
Photo: Nachman Zonabend / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 September 3-14, 1942: The Times of London runs articles describing the deportations of French Jews.
 September 4, 1942: Jews in Macedonia are required to wear the Yellow Star.
 September 4-12, 1942: Lódz (Poland) Ghetto's Jewish Council leader, Chaim Rumkowski, acquiesces to Nazi demands for deportation of the community's children and adults who are over the age of 65. During the action, Germans fire randomly into crowds, execute individual Jews, and invade Jewish hospitals. They deport approximately 15,000 people.
 September 5, 1942: Some 800 Jewish women at the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp, weakened by hunger and overwork, are gassed. Later at the camp, 661 Jews taken from a Holland deportation train are gassed.
 September 6-7, 1942: More than 1000 Polish Jews are killed by Nazis in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 363 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.