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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 423 
The Nazis' genocidal policies in Eastern Europe involved more than just killing the people occupying Germany's "living space." In addition, tens of thousands of Germans emigrated to the newly conquered territories in order to make the lands the province of the German Volk (people). This illustration refers to the forced emigration of Poles who had to leave to make room for the Germans. The text reads: "Step by step the arrival [of German immigrants] follows the migration [of the Poles]. The Resettlement division of the Security Police prohibits any cessation of work within one's area of activity."
Photo: Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Anna Wachalska, a gentile, lived in Warsaw at the time of the German invasion. She aided the Jewish Resistance throughout the Nazi occupation, even going so far as to give the identity of her deceased daughter, Stanislawa, to a young Jewish woman. Wachalska also worked closely with the Polish Socialist resistance, providing a link between it and the Jews of Warsaw. After the war she was named "Righteous Among the Nations" by the Yad Vashem.
Photo: Benjamin Meed / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
On October 29, 1942, in the midst of huge operations in Poland and the Soviet Union, the Germans deported 3000 Jews from Sandomierz, Poland, to the Belzec death camp. On November 10, 1942, those Jews not swept up in the local Aktionen were lured into a temporary ghetto at Sandomierz by German promises of safety from deportation. It was all a lie, as 6000 laborers at Sandomierz were killed in early 1943. In this photo, 20-year-old Yitzchak Goldman and seven other Jews are forced to pose for a German cameraman while laboring in front of a German office building.
Photo: YIVO / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 February 2, 1943: In a major turning point of the war, the encircled German Sixth Army surrenders to Soviet forces at Stalingrad, Russia. From this point on, most Europeans feel that the Germans will not win the war.
 February 2, 1943: The Kolomyia (Ukraine) Ghetto is liquidated; 2000 Jews are killed.
 February 4, 1943: In Lvov, Ukraine, German authorities assemble 12 surviving members of the ghetto's Jewish Council. When two do not appear and the others refuse to comply with German orders, four of the members are murdered. Six are sent to the labor camp at Janówska, Ukraine, and the two who had refused to appear are later discovered in the non-Jewish section of Lvov and shot.
 February 5, 1943: At Bialystok, Poland, a Jew named Yitzhak Malmed resists deportation by throwing sulphuric acid into the face of a German police officer, who reacts by accidentally shooting and instantly killing a Gestapo officer standing nearby. Malmed escapes but surrenders later when the Germans threaten to execute 5000 Jews in retribution unless he turns himself in. He is publicly hanged. His body is displayed at the entrance to the Bialystok Ghetto as a warning to would-be activists.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 423 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.