Home Contact Us
Index Purchase Info
About Site About Us
Appendices Credits
Further Reading Links
Special Features
By Keyword:

Page Number:
Click on an image to see a larger, more detailed picture.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 469 
The Bedzin (Poland) Ghetto, like hundreds of others, was eventually liquidated. This photograph, taken after the destruction of August 1, 1943, shows furniture and other items strewn chaotically about. Standing at the left is a smiling German police officer who is undoubtedly pleased by the annihilation of the Polish-Jewish community.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive/ Arnold Shay
Fryda Litwak was born in Lvov, Ukraine, in 1916. She was one of thousands of Jews who survived the Holocaust by posing as an Aryan, in her case under the name of Zofia Wolenska. Constantly living in fear of exposure and the certain death it would bring, she found a job with a pharmacist in Radom, Poland. Later she even went to Germany to work. Although she escaped the Nazis, she died in the final months of the war, possibly the victim of Allied bombs.
Photo: Sophie Turner-Zaretsky / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive

Located on Janówska Street, leading from Lvov, Ukraine, the Janówska concentration camp was notorious for brutality serenaded by music.

In fall 1941 the Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke (German Equipment Works), a section of the SS, moved ghetto prisoners to Janówska to produce war materiel. Housed in inhuman conditions, inmates were made to perform grueling physical tests to prove their stamina. The few who survived worked another day. The many who did not were taken na Piaski (to the sands), a sand quarry, and shot.

In March 1942 Janówska became a transit camp for Jews en route from Eastern Galicia to the extermination camp at Belzec, and in 1943 Janówska itself became a killing site. At the whim of SS officer Wilhelm Rokita, a former violinist, death was set to music. The inmate orchestra was ordered to compose and then to play the "Tango fun toyt" ("Tango of Death") as accompaniment to selections and executions.

 July 28, 1943: Late July: Members of the Sonderkommando at the Belzec death camp are sent north to the extermination camp at Sobibór, where the inmates revolt upon arrival and are shot.
 August 1943: Inmates revolt at the slave-labor camp at Sasow, Poland.
 August 1943: Armed resistance occurs at the slave-labor camp at Lackie Wielkie, Poland.
 August 1943: Following armed resistance at the Jaktorów, Poland, slave-labor camp, the camp is liquidated and the inmates killed.
 August 1943: Frumka Plotnicka, who has repeatedly risked her life by slipping out of and back into the Warsaw Ghetto with news and contraband, is cornered by Nazis in a cellar in Bedzin, Poland, and shot.
 August 1943: A Jewish revolt at the Konin, Poland, slave-labor camp, led by Rabbi Joshua Aaronson, culminates in the killing of nearly all rioters.
 August 1943: Beneath the limestone of the Harz Mountains in Germany, slave-labor construction begins on Nordhausen, an underground weapons plant.
 August 1, 1943: The Jewish ghettos at Bedzin and Sosnowiec, Poland, are liquidated. Most of the Jews are deported to Auschwitz. Jews offer armed resistance.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 469 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.