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1939: The War Against The Jews
 pg. 178 
Hitler was by now the master of European politics. In 1939, with his invasion of Poland, he began his quest for "living space" for the German people, a crusade that would culminate in his June 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union. Hitler realized that, in order to achieve his ambitious goals, which encompassed nothing less than Aryan domination of Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals, he would have to fight a series of wars. The invasion of Poland was just the first step of this bloody enterprise.
Photo: AP/Wide World
German and Soviet officers meet in Brest-Litovsk, Poland, to discuss the partitioning of that country. Once defeated, Poland was partitioned according to the secret protocols of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. The western portions of Poland were immediately subjected to Nazi rule, and plans for the racial reordering of this territory were implemented. Polish Jews and gentiles were relocated so that ethnic Germans could populate the western regions of Poland. The quest for Lebensraum (Living space) was a driving force of the Nazi military campaigns.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Youth Aliya

Thousands of Jews survived the war thanks to Youth Aliya. The goal of this German-Jewish organization was to save lives by helping young Jews, many orphaned, to emigrate from Germany to Palestine to be educated and absorbed into the kibbutzim (cooperative farming communities). The movement helped rescue German Jews from the Nazis, mobilized Jews living in the West, and served Jews residing in Palestine.

Ultimately led by American Zionist Henrietta Szold and others, Youth Aliya helped 5000 Jews escape from Germany, operating legally during the 1930s because Nazi government policy called for forced emigration of Jews. After the outbreak of war, more than 3000 European Jewish children were saved. Another 15,000 were brought to Palestine between the end of the war and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.

The organization's daring goals contrasted sharply with its conservative structure. Throughout the 1930s it required Jewish children to be physically and psychologically healthy, and they could not be from single-parent families. Once the war began, the goal was to save lives, and the requirements became more flexible. The kibbutzim became the hosts for approximately 85 percent of the Aliya youths. After the war Youth Aliya members aided several thousand young Jews in displaced-persons camps and helped even more to immigrate to Palestine.
Photo: Central Zionist Archive/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive

 November 7, 1939: The Nazis begin mass deportations of Jews from western Poland.
 November 8, 1939: Hitler is nearly killed by an assassin's bomb planted at Bürgerbraukeller, Munich, Germany.
 November 11, 1939: Six hundred Jews are murdered by German troops at Ostrow Mazowiecki, Poland.
 November 11, 1939: Two Jews are among six men and three boys taken from Zielonka, Poland, to be shot in nearby woods.
1939: The War Against The Jews
 pg. 178 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.