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1939: The War Against The Jews
 pg. 179 
General Franz Halder (left), chief of the German General Staff, discusses military matters with the commander-in-chief of the Army, General Walther von Brauchitsch. Brauchitsch commanded the troops that successfully invaded Poland in the summer of 1939. This, coupled with his leadership of the May 1940 attack on France, led to his promotion to field marshal. Under Brauchitsch, the German Army committed numerous crimes against the Polish people, especially the Jews.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
In 1940 the Nazis forced the Jews to construct the Warsaw Ghetto, the largest in Europe, themselves. Before they could begin construction of the wall that would seal off the ghetto, Warsaw's Jews had to clean up the rubble left after the German destruction of the city. Forcing Jews to participate actively in their own persecution--in this case through aiding in the building of the ghetto--was cruelly pragmatic, as the slave labor kept construction costs to a minimum.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The Nazis deported thousands of Czech Jews to ghettos in Poland. Among them were these two men and a small boy from Prague, who loaded their possessions on a cart to take them to Poland. Germany's occupation of the Czech Sudetenland in 1938--a move agreed to by Great Britain, France, and Italy--had put large numbers of Jews under Nazi control.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 November 12, 1939: SS Security Service chief Reinhard Heydrich orders that all Jews be removed from the newly formed Warthegau province (formerly western Poland) of Greater Germany. The order is made so that the region can be prepared for resettlement by ethnic Germans.
 November 12, 1939: The Nazis begin the deportation of Jews from Lódz to other parts of Poland.
 November 13, 1939: SS troops in Poland arrest and execute 53 Jewish men who happen to reside at the same address as a Jewish man who has shot and killed a Polish policeman.
 November 15, 1939: The antisemitic Fideikommissariat (Estate commission) is established to "Aryanize" Jewish-owned businesses in Occupied Poland.
 November 15-17, 1939: Nazis destroy all of the synagogues in Lódz, Poland.
 November 18, 1939: Hans Frank, the governor-general of Occupied Poland, reiterates Reinhard Heydrich's order of September 21 regarding the establishment of Judenräte in Jewish ghettos.
1939: The War Against The Jews
 pg. 179 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.