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1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 195 
No longer fearing Nazi oppression or deportation to a concentration camp, the Rosenblums, arms linked, smile at their photographer. Refugees from Germany, their search for a safe haven led them around the world to the Hellensville Farm near Auckland, New Zealand. Because they were farmers, the Rosenblums likely were welcomed immigrants.
Photo: Beth Hatefutsoth / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Under a sign identifying the city limits of Jerusalem, two fortunate refugee couples bask in their new-found freedom to stroll and sit where they choose. While large numbers of Jews from Poland and the Baltic areas sought sanctuary throughout the world, few succeeded in their quest. The British White Paper of 1939 severely restricted the number of Jews allowed to enter Palestine.
Photo: Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Pro-Nazi Dutch parade through the streets of Amsterdam during the occupation of the Netherlands by the Nazis. While some participated in the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (National Socialist Movement), the Dutch equivalent of the Nazi Party, others actively resisted or passively subverted the German occupation. Initially, the Nazis promulgated no decrees against the country's Jews. The situation changed at the end of September 1940, when Jewish publications were banned and civil servants were required to attest to their Aryan status.
Photo: Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 May 15, 1940: Thousands of refugee Jews from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia are trapped behind German lines as Nazi forces push through Holland. The Dutch Army surrenders.
 May 16, 1940: The Nazis launch the Extraordinary Pacification Operation plan to eliminate Polish intellectuals.
 May 19, 1940: Arthur Seyss-Inquart is appointed Reich commissioner for the Netherlands.
 May 20, 1940: A concentration camp begins functioning at Auschwitz in Poland. Because most of Europe's Jews live in Poland and Eastern Europe, the six concentration camps called death camps will be established there: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Chelmno, Belzec, Treblinka, Sobibór, and Majdanek.
 May 23, 1940: Frustrated by "illegal" immigration into Palestine, British High Commissioner for Palestine Sir Harold MacMichael insists that Hungary accept the return of two Jews who had left Hungary and settled in Palestine in 1934 on tourist visas. The Hungarian government replies that there are an "excessive" number of Jews in their country and the government's aim is "that as many as possible should be encouraged to emigrate."
1940: Machinery of Hatred
 pg. 195 
The Holocaust Chronicle
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