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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 222 
The main gate to the Kraków Ghetto is adorned with the Star of David and a Hebrew inscription. A center of Jewish learning since early modern times, Kraków provided a hospitable environment for Polish Jews until it was occupied by the Germans in September 1939. About 60,000 Jews came under Nazi authority.
Photo: Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
A Jewish couple moves a basket of their belongings into the Kraków Ghetto. On March 3, 1941, the district governor of Kraków, Karl Gustar Wächter, decreed that an official ghetto was to be established in the southern portion of the city. On March 20 the ghetto was sealed off behind a wall and barbed-wire fence, and thousands of Jews from neighboring communities were packed into an unimaginably small area. Four to five people were crammed into each room, creating a situation where privacy was nonexistent and sanitary conditions were appalling.
Photo: Archives of Mechanical Documentation / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
A German policeman checks the identification papers of Jews in the Kraków Ghetto. Jews were required to carry their official papers at all times. Being caught without them resulted in arrest and possible deportation to a concentration camp. When roundups and deportations began in 1942, there was a frenzied rush to establish oneself as an "essential worker."
Photo: National Archives in Kraków / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 March 13, 1941: A Belgian collaborationist organization, Amis du Grand Reich Allemand (Friends of the Greater German Reich), is founded.
 March 20, 1941: At Baumann and Berson Children's Hospital in the Warsaw Ghetto, nurse D. Wagman writes that she is helpless to prevent death.
 Spring 1941: A ghetto is established at Kielce, Poland. German overseers of the ghetto rename some of the streets. New names are Zion Street, Palestine Street, Jerusalem Street, Moses Street, Non-Kosher Street, and Grynszpan Street; See November 7, 1938.
 Spring 1941: German troops execute 250 members of a Jewish youth group in Subotica, Yugoslavia, who have been carrying out acts of sabotage.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 222 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.