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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 266 
A photo of Pola Lenczner appears on a Rosh Hashanah greeting card. The Hebrew inscription over Pola's face translates to "Have a Happy New Year." The German inscription below reads, "Heartfelt New Year's Wishes." Pola was later murdered by the Germans.
Photo: Helen Preiss / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Karl Jäger was an important Nazi functionary and SS colonel who took command of Einsatzkommando 3 of Einsatzgruppe A and of security police for Lithuania. He ordered the murder of thousands of Lithuanian Jews by having them shot in pits. Jäger eluded police for many years after the war, but was arrested in 1959. He escaped hanging by committing suicide.
Photo: Berlin Document Center / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
German police and possibly members of an Einsatzkommando murder Jews who stand helpless in a trench. Because of the sandy soil, this image may be of an Aktion carried out by Einsatzgruppe A along the coast of the Baltic Sea in Lithuania, Latvia, or Estonia. Although many German soldiers claimed after the war that they had no choice but to shoot when ordered to do so, the fact is that incidents of punishment of men who refused to participate in execution murders were rare. Men who perpetrated such atrocities did so because they wanted to.
Photo: Dokumentationsarchiv des Osterreichischen Widerstandes / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 September 19, 1941: Thousands of Jews are murdered at Zhitomir, Ukraine.
 September 19, 1941: As per the Nazi decree of September 1, 1941, the Jews of Slovakia, Bohemia, and Moravia are required to wear identifying Yellow Stars.
 September 20, 1941: Several thousand Jews, mostly women and children from Kovno, Lithuania, are executed at the local synagogue after being held there for three days.
 September 20, 1941: Policemen in Kiev, Ukraine, adopt armbands identifying the wearer as a member of the Nazi-sponsored Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.
 September 22, 1941: All Jews of Litin, Ukraine, are murdered.
 September 22, 1941: SS-trained Ukrainian militiamen massacre 28,000 Jews at Vinnitsa, Ukraine.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 266 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.