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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 276 
Already massively overcrowded and short on food, the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto became the destination for trainloads of Jews deported from Germany, Austria, and Bohemia beginning in autumn 1941. To accommodate the influx, the Nazis required Chaim Rumkowski, the head of the ghetto administration, to select 20,000 residents for deportation. By late January 1942 Rumkowski had negotiated the number down to 10,000 deemed "asocial"; that is, not contributing to the ghetto's industries.
Photo: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive / Judische Museum
Nazi authorities often forced the Jews to police themselves, especially in the ghettos. This photograph shows a Jewish policeman at the entrance to the ghetto in Stanislawów, Ukraine. The sign, in German, reads, "Entrance to the Jewish Quarter is Forbidden." The Nazis hoped to completely cut off the ghettos from the outside world. No one was to know what went on there.
Photo: Yad Vashem / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The victims of Nazi massacres were almost always buried in mass graves, such as this one in Yugoslavia containing the bodies of Jews and Gypsies murdered by the 750th Infantry Regiment in October 1941. As part of an effort to conceal their horrific crimes, the Nazis would later dig up many of these mass graves so that the bodies could be burned. This is yet another example of atrocity compounded by stupidity. To unearth mass graves was a monumental undertaking, as the Nazis had been filling them across Europe for months. Many graves remained untouched until discovered by Allied troops, and even when remains had been exhumed by Germans, considerable physical evidence remained at overburdened ovens and ineffectual outdoor pyres.
Photo: Documentationsarchiv des Osterreischischen Widerstandes / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
 October 26, 1941: Pigeon-keepers at Kiev, Ukraine, are executed on the assumption that the birds could be used to carry messages.
 October 26, 1941: Germans inform Jews of Kalisz, Poland, that elderly Jews in convalescent homes are to be moved to another home the next day; See October 27, 1941.
 October 27, 1941: A black van that stops at the Jewish old people's home in Kalisz, Poland, is loaded with elderly and driven off. The van is specially outfitted to route carbon monoxide into the cargo area; See October 28, 1941.
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 276 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.