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1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 277 
Romania was among Germany's Eastern European allies. On October 16, 1941, the city of Odessa, Ukraine, was overrun by the German and Romanian armies and occupied by the Romanians. Although Jews had been a presence in Romania since the second century, the way for them had been thorny. Romanian governments of the early 20th century prevented Jews from assimilating, and anti-Jewish violence was not uncommon. By 1941 Romania, like other collaborationist states, practiced the same occupation policies as the Germans. This photograph shows Jews waiting to register with the new authorities in the Romanian-controlled city.
Photo: Sachsische Landesbibliothek
Two civilian bureaucrats, Wilhelm Frick (left) and Hans Globke (right) join their military colleagues in a parade. Frick played a vital role in the Nazi Party's rise to power, first as minister of the interior in Thuringia and later as Reich minister of the interior. Although he never joined the Party, Globke served as the ministry's director of the citizenship department, and was a legal advisor to Frick. In that role, Globke participated in formulating the commentary on the Reich Citizenship Law, differentiating between Jew and German and depriving Jews of their basic rights.
Photo: Yad Vashem
During a roundup of Jews in Poland, a German soldier checks a boy to see if he is a Jew by examining his genitals for circumcision. Despite German claims that Jews displayed obvious racial features that distinguished them from Aryans, sometimes even "experts" with calipers to measure skull dimensions were unable to discover who was a Jew and who was Aryan. Checking males for circumcision was a less scientific but more pragmatic method.
Photo: Archive Photos
1941: Mass Murder
 pg. 277 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.