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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 330 
Heirs to a long tradition of antisemitism, many Poles collaborated with the Nazis, betraying their Jewish friends and neighbors. Others feared the Nazi death sentence levied against any who hid Jews. Antisemitic attitudes had taken on a new cast in 1918 to 1920, when Poland struggled for independence from Russia, Prussia, and Austria, and began to establish a capitalist economy. The combination of nationalism and economic ambition cast Jews not merely as outsiders, but as competitors. In the years leading up to World War II, then, Polish Jews grew increasingly marginalized. Here, a Pole in the town of Swierze literally carries a Jewish woman to the Gestapo.
Photo: Ita Spiller / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Hlinka guardsmen of the Slovakian nationalist party stand in front of a truck loaded with Jewish deportees at an assembly point in Kralovsky-Chlumec. Local police and guard units helped round up and deport the Jews to one of the six death facilities located in German-occupied Poland.
Photo: Yad Vashem / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
The Nazis often insisted upon adding insult to injury by tormenting Jews who were about to be deported to their deaths. Here, Nazi thugs humiliate an Orthodox Jew from the Czechoslovakian town of Stropkov by trimming his beard--an all too common occurrence. Such actions not only pained the victims, but also allowed the perpetrators to unleash their contempt for the centuries-old culture of European Jewry.
Photo: Czechoslovak News Agency / USMM
 June 12, 1942: Jewish babies, children, and elderly of Khmel'nik, Ukraine, are shot in a nearby forest.
 June 12, 1942: Anne Frank turns 13 years old.
 June 13, 1942: Three thousand Jews are deported from the Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia, camp/ghetto to their deaths.
 June 13, 1942: British Ambassador to the Vatican Francis d'Arcy Osborne observes about Pope Pius XII that his "moral leadership is not assured by the unapplied recital of the Commandments."
 June 14, 1942: Two thousand Jews break out of Dzisna, Belorussia.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 330 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.