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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 366 
Ada Levi, a Jew, of Bologna, Italy, received forced-labor notification No. 307. It was signed by the prefect of Bologna, president of the Provincial Council, on September 14, 1942. Although the Italian government treated Jews better than the Germans--indeed, better than the Vichy French government--Jews were nevertheless required to provide labor.
Photo: Sifriat Hapoalim, Israel / Yad Vashem
Forced labor was a common characteristic of the German occupation of Poland. This labor pass of September 15, 1942, was awarded to Chaim Jakub Hallsweder by the Judenrat of Bochnia, Poland. Less than two months later, the Germans attacked the ghetto, killed dozens of Jews, and sent hundreds of others to the Belzec death camp.
Photo: Yad Vashem Archives
Jewish Combatants

Jews made significant contributions in the military effort to defeat Hitler. Estimates suggest that almost one and a half million Jewish soldiers fought against the Nazis as members of Allied military units.

Eminently motivated, Jews served in proportionately much greater numbers in every Allied country than their percentage of the total population. United States forces included 550,000 Jews from a total American-Jewish population of 5,500,000. That constituted a military representation of ten percent, when Jews made up less than three percent of the total American population.

American Jews fought in every theater of the war, some flying bombing missions over Germany before the arrival of U.S. ground forces. About 8000 American Jews died in fighting, and thousands more were wounded.

In the Soviet Union, Jewish submarine Captain Israel Fisanovich stalked German shipping in the Arctic and sank many ships. Spirited Cossack commander General Lev Dovator contributed to the stalling of the German offensive in southern Ukraine, which had been pushing toward the oil fields of the Caucasus.

British Army units included about 30,000 Jewish volunteers from Palestine, 5000 of whom served in the Jewish Brigade, which saw action in Italy in 1944. It was the only unit in World War II to fight under the Jewish flag.
Photo: SYddeutscher Verlag Bilderdienst

 September 12, 1942: More than 4800 Polish Jews are deported from Warsaw to the Treblinka extermination camp. A young Jew named Abraham Jakób Krzepicki escapes from Treblinka and makes his way to Warsaw, where ghetto historian Emanuel Ringelblum sees that Krzepicki's eyewitness camp testimony is taken down; See December 1, 1950.
 September 12, 1942: The German Sixth Army and Fourth Panzer Army reach the suburbs of Stalingrad, Russia. They're primed to meet the Soviets in the Battle of Stalingrad.
 September 13, 1942: The Jewish community at Checiny, Poland, is deported.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 366 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.