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1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 389 
A German soldier stands beside bodies of Jews murdered at the slave-labor camp at Skarzysko-Kamienna, Poland. Well after the ghettos in Occupied Poland were liquidated, the Nazis continued to ship prisoners to this work camp.
Photo: Yad Vashem
A sculpture by the American artist Gideon offers a moving image of human suffering. Gideon joined the Army at age 18 and spent much of the war in Europe. Exposure to pain and suffering profoundly affected the artist and had a marked influence on his work.
Photo: Gideon
Jan Karski

A gentile courier for the Polish government-in-exile, Jan Karski took extraordinary risks to bring first-hand accounts of what was happening to Jews in Poland to the outside world.

Through contact with Menahem Kirschenbaum, a Zionist leader, and Leon Feiner, who represented the Bund, Karski--disguised as a Jew--gained entrance to the Warsaw Ghetto. His eyewitness accounts of the suffering made him a persuasive advocate. In another brave venture, Karski impersonated a guard and secretly entered a concentration or death camp. There he saw Jews being herded to their deaths inside boxcars filled with quicklime.

Karski delivered his reports to the Polish government-in-exile in London and met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Driven by urgency, he traveled to Washington, where he asked President Franklin Roosevelt to act quickly to stop the murder of Jews.
Photo: Jan Karski/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive

 November 8, 1942: Allied Operation Torch landings take place on the Algerian coast and incidentally ensure the safety of 117,000 Algerian Jews. Algerian-Jewish resistance, armed by the United States, helps prevent a Vichy French response to the Allied landings.
 November 8, 1942: In Tripoli, Libya, German occupiers press 2600 Jews into forced labor to build military roads.
 November 10, 1942: Six thousand Polish Jews who have been hiding in forests since the spring of 1942 surrender after the Germans promise safe passage to a new Jewish ghetto; See January 10, 1943.
 November 11, 1942: German and Italian troops occupy Vichy, France.
 November 11, 1942: Norwegian Protestant bishops in Oslo publicly protest deportations of Norwegian Jews. They state in a letter to Norwegian Prime Minister Vidkun Quisling: "God does not differentiate between people."
 November 15, 1942: The Soviet-based Jewish Antifascist Committee releases a report, "The Liquidation of the Jews in Warsaw."
 November 15, 1942: In an action led by Mayer List, two Jewish women partisans in Paris place two time bombs at a Nazi barracks window, which will kill several soldiers.
1942: The "Final Solution"
 pg. 389 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.