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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 418 
Head of the ghetto administration in Lódz, Poland, Hans Biebow (left) surveys the booty collected from the Jews under his charge. Biebow used his extensive powers for personal enrichment. He exploited Jewish labor and robbed Jews of their property. In order to maximize his profits, Biebow managed to keep the ghetto open until the summer of 1944.
Photo: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz
As younger and older German males were conscripted into the armed forces, the Nazi authorities turned to the vast pool of labor from the conquered countries of the East to supply their needs. Here, female workers from the Soviet Union engage in forced labor at the Siemens factory in Berlin. They wear badges with the OST insignia, identifying them as Ostarbeiter, workers from the East.
Photo: Dokumentationsarchiv des Osterreichischen Widerstandes / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

The successor to Reinhard Heydrich, Ernst Kaltenbrunner devoted himself to completing his predecessor's agenda of hate.

Born near Hitler's birthplace of Braunau, Austria, Kaltenbrunner enjoyed the advantages of wealth, earning a degree in law. A fierce antisemite, he joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1932 and subsequently became a member of the SS. His Nazi activities led to imprisonment, but with the Anschluss (Germany's annexation of Austria) Kaltenbrunner was rewarded with an appointment as minister of state security. He cooperated with boyhood friend Adolf Eichmann to force the emigration of Austrian Jews. Following Heydrich's death in 1942, Heinrich Himmler promoted Kaltenbrunner to head the Reich Security Main Office in 1943.

An imposing figure with a huge facial scar, Kaltenbrunner preferred the shadows of anonymity. He hid in the Austrian Alps at the end of the war, but was captured and indicted. At the Nuremberg Trials, he pleaded ignorance and innocence. He could not escape, however, the fact that the position he held from 1943 to 1945 gave him extraordinary power to carry out the "Final Solution." Witnesses placed him at the Mauthausen gassings, and he was charged with ordering the executions of Allied POWs. Judged guilty, Kaltenbrunner was executed on October 16, 1946.
Photo: Bilderdienst Suddeutscher Verlag / United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archive

 January 19, 1943: As Nazis raid the Warsaw Ghetto for the second consecutive day, a crying child is accidentally suffocated by his terrified mother.
 January 19-22, 1943: Six thousand Jews from Warsaw are murdered at the Treblinka death camp.
 January 20, 1943: In a letter to the Reich minister of transport, SS chief Heinrich Himmler requests additional trains so that the "removal of Jews" from across Europe can be speeded up.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 418 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.