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1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 436 
Henning von Tresckow was a major general in the German Army who joined the opposition movement against Hitler. While serving on the Russian front, Tresckow became convinced that the campaign was destined for failure and that Hitler had to be removed from power. He was involved in the failed attempt on Hitler's life in March 1943 that took place in Smolensk, Russia; a bomb made of plastic explosives and disguised as bottles of brandy failed to detonate after being placed aboard the Führer's private plane. After the plot to kill Hitler in July 1944 also failed, Tresckow took his own life.
Photo: Bundesarchiv
Accompanied by high-level German military officers, Jozef Tiso engages in friendly conversation with Hitler. As leader of Slovakia, Tiso allowed the deportation of Jews, although he had the power to intervene and did so in a few cases. Although some 25,000 Jews still resided in Slovakia, the deportations halted in March 1943, perhaps because the Nazis wished to focus on making other areas "Jew free"--or perhaps because many of the remaining Jews were skilled laborers useful to the Nazis.
Photo: Bilderdienst SYddeutscher Verlag
American Jewish Organizations

Throughout the Second World War, American-Jewish organizations engaged in a relentless but relatively unsuccessful effort to save European Jewry. Their campaigns intensified in 1943 after reports of Hitler's genocidal programs were confirmed.

The mainstream American-Jewish organizations, led by Rabbi Stephen Wise, organized public demonstrations and lobbied government officials. The American Jewish Congress's "Stop Hitler Now" demonstration in New York City on March 1, 1943, attracted an estimated 75,000 people. The throng listened to speeches by leaders of the American Federation of Labor, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, and other non-Jewish associations.

A more radical group, the Committee for a Jewish Army (CJA), attempted to broker a rescue operation for Romanian Jews. The group took out ads in major newspapers, which claimed that the freedom of 70,000 Jews could be purchased for $50 apiece. Obvious shock value aside, the ad's intent was to show that rescue of Jews was a matter of Allied will.

On March 15, 1943, eight major Jewish organizations created the Joint Emergency Committee on European Affairs (JEC). The committee strived to expand the public-information campaign, to spur the United States Congress to support rescue operations, and to organize high-level conferences on behalf of European Jewry. President Franklin Roosevelt finally created the War Refugee Board, but not until January 1944--14 months after he had learned about the "Final Solution."

 March 13, 1943: The SS establishes Ostindustrie GmbH (East Industry, Inc.) in Poland to organize and exploit slave labor in and around Lublin. The project is supervised by Odilo Globocnik.
 March 14, 1943: Two thousand Jews in Kraków, Poland, are assembled for deportation. Before the train leaves for Auschwitz, hundreds of small children and old people are murdered in the streets and in ditches outside of town. Patients at Kraków's Jewish hospital are murdered by Gestapo agents.
 March 15, 1943: Deportations of Jews in Salonika, Greece, to Auschwitz begin. The first group numbers 2800.
1943: Death and Resistance
 pg. 436 
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2009 Publications International, Ltd.